Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Field Of Personality Psychology - 1027 Words

The field of personality psychology has recently uncovered evidence to suggest that people living in Western individualistic societies are becoming increasingly narcissistic (Foster, Campbell, Twenge, 2003; Twenge Foster, 2010). Narcissism has been linked with many socially undesirable characteristics such as grandiose sense of self worth, lack of empathy and manipulation of others. These individuals are unable to build stable relationships and often suffer from anxiety and depression. Negative interpersonal and social behaviours also arise from narcissistic traits. This paper will contribute to the current knowledge base by reviewing previous studies that have researched narcissism and its increase in Western society. It will also†¦show more content†¦This is not to be confused with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (found in the DSM-V), which is more invasive than narcissism- affecting every facet of an individual’s life and personality. When looking to dissect an d elucidate Western society, understanding narcissism is essential due to the emerging ‘narcissism epidemic’. Western culture thrives on self-appreciation; this is displayed through an increase of materialism, entitlement, violence and an obsession with being different. This can be empirically supported by an increase in plastic surgeries, larger homes, increased popularity of contestant-based reality television shows, and larger credit card debts. It is imperative to understand the rise in narcissism in Western society so as future studies may identify reversal techniques. This would result in the ability to explain and reduce causation factors for narcissism and decrease the number of unhealthy societal trends. The origin of individualistic Western society stems back to self-love and appreciation movements in the 1970’s. These movements carried through to the 1980’s and 1990’s, becoming increasingly influential on the general public. Nowadays, it is considered vital to love oneself before being able to be successful in work, relationships and life

Thursday, May 14, 2020

General motors corporate profile - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2264 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Transport Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? 1.0 General Motors Corporate Profile General Motors Corporate (G M) one of the worlds largest automakers, was founded in 1908, and today manufactures cars and trucks in 34 countries. With its global headquarters in Detroit, GM employs 244,500 people in every major region of the world, and sells and services vehicles in some 140 countries. In 2008, GM sold 8.35 million cars and trucks globally under the following brands: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, GM Daewoo, Holden, HUMMER, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn, Vauxhall and Wuling. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "General motors corporate profile" essay for you Create order GMs largest national market is the United States, followed by China, Brazil, the United Kingdom, Canada, Russia and Germany. GMs On Star subsidiary is the industry leader in vehicle safety, security and information services. GM is the majority shareholder in GM Daewoo Auto Technology Co. of South Korea, and has product, power train and purchasing collaborations with Suzuki Motor Corp. and Isuzu Motors Ltd. of Japan. GM also has advanced technology collaborations with Chrysler LLC, Daimler AG, BMW AG and Toyota Motor Corp. and vehicle manufacturing ventures with several automakers around the world, including Toyota, Suzuki, Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. of China, AVTOVAZ of Russia and Renault SA of France. GM parts and accessories are sold under GM Goodwrench and ACDelco brands through GM Service and Parts Operations which supplies GM dealerships and distributors worldwide. GM engines and transmissions are marketed through GM Powertrain. GMs largest national market is the United States, followed by China, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Germany. GM owns nearly-half (49%) of the finance company GMAC Financial Services, which offers automotive, residential and commercial financing and insurance. GMs OnStar subsidiary is a vehicle safety, security and information service provider. There have only been a limited number of models bearing the General Motors brand. The GM EV1 was introduced in the 1990s but was later discontinued. The GM Sequel was a hydrogen fuel cell concept vehicle introduced in 2005; however the name was later changed to Chevrolet Sequel. Along with various concept vehicles, the Holden Statesman luxury sedan (1971 1985) was originally marketed as the General Motors Statesman. 2.0 Porter Analysis The porters 5 forces is a simple tool to understanding where the company power lies in a business situation. The porters forces also helping company understand the strength of a current competitive position. The porter 5 forces includes bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of supplier, threat of new entry, threat of substitute and rivalry among competitors. The bargaining power of buyer is described as the market of outputs. The bargaining power of buyers ability of the customers exert pressure on businesses by demanding reduce price and increasing the product quality. Company must recognize consumer want and need. In order to boost sales volume, manufactures follow changing consumer trends. The bargaining power of buyer will be high when the large volume buyer are concentrated buying the product or services. There is a concentration of buyers. Other factor will be increasing bargaining power of buyers is the products available replaces by substitutes in the market. In a utomotive industry the buyers have the greatest power because they can the low switching costs associated with selecting from competing brands. If buyers become disenchanted with some automaker, they can look for alternatives especially foreign cars. Automotive industries have many automakers can substitutes replace General Motors Corporate such as Toyota, Honda, Ford, and so on. General Motors Corporate in order to avoid replaces by other automakers, General Motors Corporate always carve out unique line of cars and trucks like fuel cell electric and hybrid vehicles. The bargaining power of supplier is described as the market of inputs. Supplier is provided the raw materials and machinery to company than the company can carry out its business operations. When the bargaining power of supplier will be high is an industry relies on just few suppliers or there are not substitutes available for suppliers product. If bargaining power of supplier higher, the company will be often faces to high pressure on margins from supplier. For example, if General Motors Corporate have one supplier to supply raw material, then the supplier increase their price this will lead General Motors cars and truck also will increase the price because General Motors dont have other supplier to supply raw material. In order to reducing the bargaining power of supplier, the company will be increasing dependency means partnering with many suppliers. Some biggest company maybe will take over a supplier. The threat of substitutes is described as an industrys profitability depends on the relative price to performance of the different types services or product to which customer can turn to buy other product that almost has the same functions. The threats of substitutes exist when a products demand is affected by switching costs. This means the costs of switching to substitutes. In the automotive industry the threat of substitutes product is very huge because automotive industry has many auto makers. In order to avoid substitute product replace the General Motors cars and trucks, General Motors Corporate has carve out its own unique product. For example, General Motors carve out alternative fuel vehicles like fuel cell electric and hybrid vehicles. Product differentiation can reduce the threat of substitute so each company also attempts to carve out unique products. Some company will be buy patent developed by potential substitute because avoid the substitute entry markets. The rivalry among competitor is described the intensity of competitive rivalry. The rivalry among competitor means have the major determinant of the competitiveness of industry. The rivalry among competitor is most obvious of any industry. The competitor normally will offer the same product or services as your company. Competitive battles include price wars, new product introduction or advertising campaigns. In order to gain more market share and increase sales, every company often use comparative advertising to emphasize areas where it outperformance its competitor. Rivalry among competitor can reduce the profitability of company but these maybe good things of publics. The rivalry among competitor exist when the industry growth. In order to reduce the rivalry among competitor, General Motors Corporate avoid price competition with other automakers and focus on different segments. Company communicates with competitor also can reduce the rivalry among competitor. This also can build win-win relationship with competitors. The threat of new entry is described the new competitor or firms entering into industry. In order to reduce the threat of new entry, the company needs to create a good brand image. If the company have a good brand image, then customer would like to stay with the brand products. The customer loyalty is a barrier entry into market. The threat of new entry depends on economics of scale. For example, company minimum size requirement for profitable operations. Au tomotive industry is a high threat of new entry but some industry low threat of new entry like shipbuilding because shipbuilding industry has high entry barriers. The government restriction also can reduce threat of new entry. For example, Malaysia government restricts new entry into automotive industry because government wants to protect of local cars (PROTON). 3.0 Limitation of Porter Analysis The porters 5 forces is a useful framework for competitive analysis within industry. Competitive analysis is lead into strategic planning and the development of a tailored competitive strategy that expects to exploit the situation. The porters 5 forces model has some limitation and weaknesses. In general, porters analysis focuses on company external competitive environment. In order to complete a full competitive analysis, the porters 5 forces need to be compensated. The porters 5 forces has further limitation in today market environment because porters analysis is assumes relativity static market structures. This means porters 5 forces are applicable for simple market structures not best applicable for today dynamic markets. Today dynamic markets are highly influenced by technological innovation such as information technology, so porters analysis cannot analyze today dynamic changes. The second limitation of porters analysis is generally based on the idea of competition. In porters analysis just described how to company or business to achieve competitive advantages. Porters analysis just focuses on competitive advantages and then ignores other important consideration strategy. For example, company not really into consideration strategy such as electronic linking of information system of all company along a value chain, virtual network or enterprise and strategies alliances. The third limitation of porters analysis is porters 5 forces are designed for analyzing individual business strategy. Porters analysis cannot cope with interdependencies and synergies within the portfolio a large company. The fourth limitation of porters analysis is the sources of value are structural advantages. Sometimes may be possible to create barriers to entry. This mean porters analysis possible will create completely new market rather than selecting existing ones. Although porters analysis are not best applicable for today dynamic markets but porters analysis still can compensated with other analysis such as SWOT analysis, PEST analysis, Value Chain analysis and etc. Porters analysis in conjunction with other tools such as PEST and SWOT can define effective competitive strategy. General Motors Corporate also uses SWOT analysis, PEST analysis, and Value Chain analysis to compensated limitation of porters analysis. PEST analysis also can uses to compensated limitation of porters analysis. PEST analysis is described macro environment such as political, economic, social and technological. PEST analysis is strategy tool for understanding markets growth or decline and potential and direction for operations. For example, General Motors must be doing market research before carve out new cars or new markets. The markets research includes economic condition, political and government policy. Government decision can affect organization directly like employments law, tax policy, trade restrictions and tariffs and environmental regulation. The economic cond ition also can affect company profitability like oil price, interest rates, and economic growth and financial crisis. Especially financial crisis because many people lose job, then almost people temporary dont want buy a new cars. This is can influence company make lose. We can refer to appendix 2; we can understand how PEST analysis is function. SWOT analysis is a strategic planning used to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for company or business. SWOT analysis applicable to measures a business units, and a proposition. SWOT analysis also can understand where the company strengths and weaknesses and then minimize the affect of weaknesses on company and maximizing or maintain company strengths. When company have know weaknesses and strengths itself then can making good decision for strategy of business proposition. For example, General Motors strengths are have large market shares, global experience, and variety of brand names and current development of alternative vehicles. So General Motors always maintain them strengths. The weaknesses of General Motors are poor customers perception, stagnant profitability, higher labor costs and overly dependent on U.S market. So General Motors try to gain more market share and increase sale volume at other countries such as China, Japan, and Malaysia and so on. General Motors also need to increase customers perception. We can refer to appendix 3; we can see how company uses SWOT analysis to identify strengths and weaknesses themselves. Value Chain analysis can overcome the limitation of porter 5 forces. Value Chain analysis described the activities that take place in a business and relates them to an analysis of the competitive strengths of the business. Value Chain analysis will help the company pursue a competitive advantages. Porters described value chain have two different categories of activities that is a primary activities and support activities. The primary activities of company include inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales and services. The support activities include procurement, human resources management, technology development and firm infrastructure. Value Chain analysis will help the company pursue a competitive advantages. We can refer to appendix 4. In appendix 4, we can see how to value chain contribution from different functions of an organization in the value adding process. Balanced scorecard is a good way to overcome the limitation of porters 5 forces. Balanced scorecard is defined are strategic planning or management system that is used extensively in industry and business to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. Balanced scorecard can help company known how well business is running. Balanced scorecard also allows company measures economic value added and operating income. For example, General Motors use balanced scorecard to measures customer satisfaction and market share in target segments. . We can refer to appendix 5; we can see how 2 balanced scorecard running. Product life cycle can overcome the limitation of porters 5 forces. Product life cycle is defined a new product progress through a sequence of stages from introduction to growth, maturity and decline. When companies produce some product like cars or trucks they must take cars market life and services life into account. Recently more and more company is attempting to optimize profit and revenue over entire life cycle. Company does this need to consideration product warranties, the ability to upgrade existing product and space part. For example, General Motors cars have 3 years warranty. . We can refer to appendix 6; we can see the new product progress thought life cycle. 4.0 Conclusion In conclusion, porters 5 force analysis not is perfect analysis but it is still a powerful framework that can provide a useful set of insights from its competitive analysis. In order to give more competitive advantages, porters 5 forces need to conjunction with other analysis such as PEST, SWOT that can help to define an effective competitive strategy. When company has an effective competitive strategy they can to build long term business strategy that also can gain more market share and increase sales volume. In other hands, company also can avoid competitor entry into market share. General Motors Corporation must continue to look at these trend and threats, as new strengths and opportunities.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Elder Paper - Physical Activity/Exercise. All Individuals,

Elder Paper - Physical Activity/Exercise All individuals, especially elders, benefit (both physically and mentally) from being physically active Defining the terms, physical activity is â€Å"any body movement produced by skeletal muscles that expand energy† (cite course PowerPoint). Per the course PowerPoint (cite with year 2013), exercise is the â€Å"planned, structured and repetitive body movement accomplished to maintain or improve one or more components of physical fitness.† The fitness levels determine if an individual can perform said physical activity. Components of physical fitness are 1) cardio-respiratory endurance, which is essentially the ability of a person’s circulatory and respiratory systems to provide the body with fuel while†¦show more content†¦As mentioned above, elders can see a multitude of health benefits through the engagement in regular physical activity/exercise. For the next two pages, the benefits of exercise in relation to the reduction of specific, chronic diseases will be discussed. There is a ton of published literature regarding the relation between exercise and the reduction of heart disease incidence. Even among those whom would fall in the overweight or obese medical categories see health benefits regarding hypertension/high blood pressure. While obviously obese or overweight individual do not see the same level of benefits from exercise, a small amount of physical activity is still beneficial (no matter the age group individuals fall under). Even baby steps help when it comes to exercis e and its related health benefits. As aforementioned above and in the Chapter 9/10 course discussion post, regular physical activity is great for diabetes as it improves insulin sensitive (to internal insulin receptors). The increased sensitivity allows an elder with Type II diabetes to lower the amount or dosage of oral medications or even injected insulin that they take, as their disease is under much better control. This is tricky, as will be discussed later in the paper. It requires continual, conscious control and compliance with exercise regimen. As an example to the above statement, I have two aunts in theirShow MoreRelatedEssay Does social isolation adversely affect health1113 Words   |  5 Pagesparticipation, activity and communication. That is a result of social isolation. The health problems of an elderly, adult and children who are socially isolated are increasing. Therefore, this essay will argue that socially isolated people will seriously suffer not only effect on physical, psychological but also behavioral health. One of negative effects of social isolation on human being is a large number of diseases which are consequence of physical health problems. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Challenges of Hotel and Resorts Industry-Free-Samples -Myassignment

Question: Challenges That the Hotel and the Resorts Industry is Facing Today. Answer: Introduction The resort and hotel industry has minted huge success to the hospitality industry. The growth has successfully contributed in the local economy as well. However, the nearing future has brought ample of challenges to the industry. They have been challenged to maintain a steady growth. The situation is challenging because of various factors; however, innovation is the one common factor, which is pulling competition in the market. Various new concepts such as Airbnb have brought mounting challenges ahead of reputed hotels and resorts (Oskam and Boswijk 2016). The main purpose of this assignment is to analyze the challenges that are there in the hospitality industry now. Brief of resort and hotel industry Resorts and hotels are little different to each other in terms of luxuries that the both offer however, they are similar in terms of factual thing. They are both offering the lodging facilities; however, there is a significant difference in between the two concepts. Hotels use to be in a building format. On the other hand, resorts are those luxury lodging places, which are built up near to attractive places such as the beaches. It is like offering personal ambience to the visitors. Both the concepts are in huge pressure because of Airbnb (Neeser, Peitz and Stuhler 2015). Effect of industry on the local economy The success of hotel resort industry does also influence the local economy. It does so in numerous ways. An incrementing number of hotel and resort booking mean an increasing number of visitors. In other words, the hospitality infrastructure is supporting the tourism industry by providing lodging facilities to the visitors. Both the foreign and the local visitors plan their trip by also booking their selected lodging facilities in advance. This trend is beneficial for both the hospitality and the tourism industry. Nevertheless, this will also improve the local economy by bringing more business to country (Zaei and Zaei 2013). Current trend in relation to business progression The future of hotel and the resort industry looks very challenging because of several reasons such as the use of innovation in offering. Services such as Airbnb have significantly driven the interest of significant number of customers towards it. The concept looks interesting to many because it is fast easy and it offers a home like experience in attractive locations. Customers are just needed to book their choice of rooms in the website of Airbnb. The rooms offered to them are not like the hotel room; however, those rooms are far better than the hotel rooms. They are actually big homes owned by others. Customers book such rooms for a long period, which is one of the specialties of the services offered by Airbnb (Zekanovic-Korona and Grzunov 2014). Challenges ahead in nearing future Innovation is perhaps the biggest challenge. It is innovation that has given birth to services like Airbnb. Airbnb has enhanced the concept of shared economy, which is significantly hampering the business of hotel resort industry (Zervas, Proserpio and Byers 2014). Labor shortage is the other challenge, which has not only worried the hotel industry but it has influenced the other industries as well. The growth of tourism in developing and the developed countries has produced the requirement of sufficient labor at the workplace. However, it is also a challenge to find an adequate number of talented professionals (Phillips et al. 2017). Strategies used for countering the challenges The changing trend for the hospitality industry has encouraged the industry to use some strategies in order to counter the challenges. Travel planning apps is one of those, which will help customers book the flights and accommodation in the choice of place. They are now heading to online channels to offer customers book their tickets. The step is just to match the innovative level, which was missing significantly. They have now understood that guest data will be important to understand the preference of customers. Furthermore, this will open up ways to some other innovation (Guttentag 2015). Conclusions The hotel industry is comprised of both the hotels and the resorts. Both are different to each other in terms of infrastructure; however, they both satisfy more or less the same need. The hotel industry is one of those sectors that have contributed significantly in the local economy of any country across the globe. However, the future looks very challenging indeed. This is because of various reasons such as the use of innovation in the services. The advent of Airbnb has significantly affected the business of traditional hotel industry. The one very evident difference between the two kinds of services is the use of innovation that has favored the later service. It is indeed required to put some show by innovating with the services in order to compete with the rising threat in the form of Airbnb. Recommendations to counter the challenges Following are the list of recommendations for the hotel industry to stay competitive in the future: It is required to convert hotel into a data platform, which means mapping up the entire guest journey. The data will help them to improve their customer experience Be innovative with the services, designs and the surrounding background. People especially the Millennial prefer to be in an accommodation place where they are introduced to local culture through the food menu, the staffs and the surrounding ambience. References Guttentag, D., 2015. Airbnb: disruptive innovation and the rise of an informal tourism accommodation sector.Current issues in Tourism,18(12), pp.1192-1217. Neeser, D., Peitz, M. and Stuhler, J., 2015. Does Airbnb hurt hotel business: Evidence from the Nordic countries.University Carlos III de Madrid dissertation. Oskam, J. and Boswijk, A., 2016. Airbnb: the future of networked hospitality businesses.Journal of Tourism Futures,2(1), pp.22-42. Phillips, P., Barnes, S., Zigan, K. and Schegg, R., 2017. Understanding the impact of online reviews on hotel performance: an empirical analysis.Journal of Travel Research,56(2), pp.235-249. Zaei, M.E. and Zaei, M.E., 2013. The impacts of tourism industry on host community.European journal of tourism hospitality and research,1(2), pp.12-21. Zekanovic-Korona, L. and Grzunov, J., 2014, May. Evaluation of shared digital economy adoption: Case of Airbnb. InInformation and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO), 2014 37th International Convention on(pp. 1574-1579). IEEE. Zervas, G., Proserpio, D. and Byers, J.W., 2014. The rise of the sharing economy: Estimating the impact of Airbnb on the hotel industry.Journal of Marketing Research.

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Family The Root of a Being free essay sample

â€Å"Family isn’t an important thing, it’s everything.† Michael J. Fox, a well-known actor quotes. All children inherit some things from their parents, may it be shape of the nose or blue eyes; I inherited few more qualities than those. I learnt about culture, values and beliefs. I also found the real meaning of teamwork, capability and ability from them. We often visit the kingdom of spirituality together. Every evening my family prays together for betterment of lives, not only of ours but of all those who are in need. We attend the temple regularly and are explained about the culture: what we believe in and importantly, why we believe in it. It has made me proud about my origins and has provided me to stand better in the country with multiple diversities. Teachings from my parents not only on religion but also about life has educated me enough. My parents are very practical teachers on life, love, wisdom and much more. We will write a custom essay sample on Family: The Root of a Being or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I believe that family always has an advantage over other groups of people, as it is a not an artificial manmade group. On the other hand, it is naturally organised group of people with the balance of good and bad traits who learn and benefit together; and that’s where I come from. Every move we have made, may it be a decision or may it be moving countries, we have clutched together into a hurdle and protected and helped each other through those hardships. My parents assisted me to struggle out through the pressure of different cultures by sculpturing my basic inborn ethos; they aided me out through the phase of identity crisis, to the outgoing person who I am now and can communicate with people easily. They spotlighted my capability and ability by keeping faith in my determination during all those hard times of moving countries. They always told me to believe in my capability so I have the capacity to succeed. Being able to care for others, understand problems, seek solutions, to be proud of my originality, being an equal part of the team, to be adaptive and responsible are some of the things from which I come from. Shaping my dreams and making my aspirations stronger by the sturdy values and upbringing which makes me dream bigger and dedicated to my goals; I am thankful to the family. If I were to define myself, it would have a major contribution of my family and our beliefs, because they are everything for me.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Information Systems Engineering In Industry The WritePass Journal

Information Systems Engineering In Industry Introduction Information Systems Engineering In Industry IntroductionRÐ µfÐ µrÐ µncÐ µsRelated Introduction ThÃ'â€"s pÐ °pÐ µr wÃ'â€"ll dÃ'â€"scuss thÐ µ stÐ °tÐ µmÐ µnt thÐ °t Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on systÐ µms should not bÐ µ thÐ µ solÐ µ thÐ µ rÐ µsponsÃ'â€"bÃ'â€"lÃ'â€"ty of thÐ µ systÐ µm provÃ'â€"dÐ µrs. ThÃ'â€"s dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on should bÐ µ on thÐ µ dÃ'â€"scrÐ µtÃ'â€"on of mÐ °nÐ °gÐ µmÐ µnt. InvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on tÐ µchnology (IT) Ð °pproÐ °ch lÐ µvÐ µl of 4% of compÐ °ny rÐ µvÐ µnuÐ µs Ð °nd consÃ'â€"st of nÐ µÃ °rly hÐ °lf budgÐ µt of U.S. cÐ °pÃ'â€"tÐ °l, procÐ µss of dÐ µcÃ'â€"dÃ'â€"ng whÐ °t, whÐ µn Ð °nd how Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt IT Ã'â€"s crÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"cÐ °l to survÃ'â€"vÐ °l. In somÐ µ studÃ'â€"Ð µs, mÐ °rgÃ'â€"nÐ °l bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n IT hÐ °vÐ µ bÐ µÃ µn only 80% of thÐ µÃ'â€"r costs. ThÃ'â€"s Ã'â€"mplÃ'â€"Ð µs thÐ µ dÐ µvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on of compÐ °ny Ð °nd, quÃ'â€"tÐ µ possÃ'â€"bly, thÐ µ flÐ °wÐ µd procÐ µss of mÐ °kÃ'†"ng thÐ µsÐ µ Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"ons. (DÐ µnnÃ'â€"s 2009) WhÐ µn Ã'â€"t comÐ µs to crÐ µÃ °tÃ'â€"ng vÐ °luÐ µ Ã'â€"n thÐ µ compÐ °ny, Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"s most Ã'â€"mportÐ °nt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on. ThÃ'â€"s dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on dÐ µtÐ µrmÃ'â€"nÐ µs totÐ °l Ð °mount of Ð °ssÐ µts hÐ µld by compÐ °ny, composÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on of thÐ µsÐ µ Ð °ssÐ µts Ð °nd pÐ µrsonÐ °lÃ'â€"ty of busÃ'â€"nÐ µss rÃ'â€"sk of compÐ °ny Ð °s pÐ µrcÐ µÃ'â€"vÐ µd by Ã'â€"nvÐ µstors. UsÃ'â€"ng Ð °pproprÃ'â€"Ð °tÐ µ Ð °ccÐ µptÐ °ncÐ µ crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"on for Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"s crÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"cÐ °l to Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on. InvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n InformÐ °tÃ'â€"on TÐ µchnology (IT) Ð °rÐ µ Ð °pproÐ °chÃ'â€"ng lÐ µvÐ µl of 4% of compÐ °ny rÐ µvÐ µnuÐ µ (McKÐ µÃ µn1993) Ð °nd Ð °rÐ µ bÐ µgÃ'â€"nnÃ'â€"ng to closÐ µ nÐ µÃ °rly hÐ °lf budgÐ µt of U.S. cÐ °pÃ'â€"tÐ °l. ThÃ'â€"s mÐ °kÐ µs procÐ µss of dÐ µcÃ'â€"dÃ'â€"ng whÐ °t, whÐ µn Ð °nd how Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n tÐ µchnologÃ'â€"Ð µs crÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"cÐ °l to survÃ'â€"vÐ °l of thÐ µ compÐ °ny. In somÐ µ studÃ'â€"Ð µs, mÐ °rgÃ'â€"nÐ °l bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n IT hÐ °vÐ µ bÐ µÃ µn only 80% of thÐ µÃ'â€"r costs. ThÃ'â€"s Ã'â€"ndÃ'â€"cÐ °tÐ µs thÐ µ dÐ µvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on of compÐ °ny Ð °nd Ã'â€"nvolvÐ µs quÃ'â€"tÐ µ possÃ'â€"bly thÐ µ flÐ °wÐ µd procÐ µss of mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng thÐ µsÐ µ Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"ons. In thÐ µ 1994 survÐ µy of IT Ã'â€"ndustry Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt prÐ °ctÃ'â€"cÐ µs of Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"n UK, just ovÐ µr 50% of orgÐ °nÃ'â€"zÐ °tÃ'â€"ons survÐ µyÐ µd hÐ °d formÐ °l mÐ µthodologÃ'â€"Ð µs for mÐ °nÐ °gÃ'â€"ng IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt procÐ µss. THE dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÐ µd procÐ µss Ã'â€"s dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÃ'â€"tÐ µly thÐ µ poor procÐ µss Ð °nd unmÐ °nÐ °gÐ µd onÐ µ. (MÃ'â€"tch 2008) PurposÐ µ of thÃ'â€"s pÐ °pÐ µr Ã'â€"s to Ð µxÐ °mÃ'â€"nÐ µ procÐ µss of IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"n rÐ µlÐ °tÃ'â€"on to othÐ µr typÐ µs of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ð °nd proposÐ µs Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µs to Ã'â€"mprovÐ µ currÐ µnt procÐ µss. As mÐ µntÃ'â€"onÐ µd Ð °bovÐ µ, Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on procÐ µss Ã'â€"s most Ã'â€"mportÐ °nt wÃ'â€"thÃ'â€"n thÐ µ compÐ °ny whÐ µn Ã'â€"t comÐ µs to vÐ °luÐ µ crÐ µÃ °tÃ'â€"on. InvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"s dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÐ µd Ð °s Ð °llocÐ °tÃ'â€"on of cÐ °pÃ'â€"tÐ °l to thÐ µ proposÐ °l, bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts Ð °rÐ µ to bÐ µ conductÐ µd Ã'â€"n futurÐ µ. BÐ µcÐ °usÐ µ futurÐ µ Ã'â€"s Ð °lwÐ °ys uncÐ µrtÐ °Ã'â€"n, rÃ'â€"sk of not rÐ µcÐ µÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"ng bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts must Ð °lso bÐ µ consÃ'â€"dÐ µrÐ µd. ThÃ'â€"s dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÐ µs mÐ °Ã'â€"n componÐ µnts of dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on procÐ µss Ð °s cost of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt, bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts rÐ µÃ °lÃ'â€"zÐ µd, tÃ'â€"mÃ'â€"ng of bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts Ð °nd uncÐ µrtÐ °Ã'â€"nty Ð °t rÃ'â€"sk of rÐ µÃ °lÃ'â€"zÃ'â€"ng bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts. GÐ µnÐ µrÐ °lly Ð °ccÐ µptÐ µd fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÃ'â€"Ð °l dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on procÐ µss Ã'â€"s bÐ °sÐ µd on HÐ µrbÐ µrt SÃ'â€"mon procÐ µss, Ã'â€"ntÐ µllÃ'â€"gÐ µncÐ µ, dÐ µsÃ'â€"gn Ð °ctÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"Ð µs Ð °nd Ð °ctÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"Ð µs of choÃ'â€"cÐ µ. 1. GÐ µnÐ µrÐ °tÃ'â€"on of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt proposÐ °ls 2. ЕstÃ'â€"mÐ °tÐ µd cÐ °sh flows of proposÐ °l 3. EvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on of cÐ °sh flows (NPV, Ð µtc) 4. ProjÐ µct sÐ µlÐ µctÃ'â€"on bÐ °sÐ µd on thÐ µ crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"on of Ð °ccÐ µptÐ °ncÐ µ Ð °nd 5. ContÃ'â€"nuous rÐ µÃ °ssÐ µssmÐ µnt of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt projÐ µcts Ð °ftÐ µr Ã'â€"ts Ð °ccÐ µptÐ °ncÐ µ. (ErÃ'â€"n 2009) ThÃ'â€"s procÐ µss Ã'â€"nvolvÐ µs mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"ons. ElÐ µmÐ µnts of thÐ µ good optÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"s dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÐ µd by KÐ µpnÐ µr Ð °nd TrÐ µgoÐ µ dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng gurus Ð °s QuÐ °lÃ'â€"ty of dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on of spÐ µcÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"c fÐ °ctors thÐ °t must bÐ µ mÐ µt, quÐ °lÃ'â€"ty EvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on of Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µs Ð °vÐ °Ã'â€"lÐ °blÐ µ Ð °nd quÐ °lÃ'â€"ty of undÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ'â€"ng of whÐ °t thÐ µsÐ µ Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µs mÐ °y producÐ µ. ProcÐ µss dÐ µscrÃ'â€"bÐ µd Ð °bovÐ µ lÐ µd Ð µconomÃ'â€"c dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÐ µs Ð °ll thÐ µsÐ µ Ð µlÐ µmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n Ð °n Ð µconomÃ'â€"cÐ °lly orÃ'â€"Ð µntÐ µd. DÐ µfÃ'â€"nÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on of spÐ µcÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"c fÐ °ctors or crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °, usuÐ °lly bÐ °sÐ µd on Ð °vÐ µrÐ °gÐ µ rÐ °tÐ µ of rÐ µturn, pÐ °ybÐ °ck, Ã'â€"ntÐ µrnÐ °l rÐ °tÐ µ of rÐ µturn Ð °nd nÐ µt prÐ µsÐ µnt vÐ °luÐ µ. EvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on of Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µs Ð °rÐ µ drÃ'â€"vÐ µn by HurdlÐ µ rÐ °tÐ µs Ã'â€"nfluÐ µncÐ µd by cost of pÐ µrformÐ °ncÐ µ goÐ °ls or Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt cÐ °pÃ'â€"tÐ °l. OftÐ µn thÐ µsÐ µ Ã'â€"ssuÐ µs Ð °rÐ µ sÐ µt by strÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"c or polÃ'â€"cy. UndÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ'â€"ng of whÐ °t Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µs mÃ'â€"ght producÐ µ Ã'â€"s usuÐ °lly lÃ'â€"mÃ'â€"tÐ µd by mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs of rÐ µturn on Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt thÐ °t Ð °rÐ µ drÃ'â€"vÐ µn by Ð µstÃ'â€"mÐ °tÐ µs of futurÐ µ cÐ °sh flows. ThÐ µsÐ µ Ð µstÃ'â€"mÐ °tÐ µs Ð °rÐ µ usuÐ °lly dÐ µvÐ µlopÐ µd wÃ'â€"th currÐ µnt Ð °ccountÃ'â€"ng functÃ'â€"onÐ °l guÃ'â€"dÐ °ncÐ µ Ð °nd budgÐ µtÃ'â€"ng systÐ µms. In most busÃ'â€"nÐ µssÐ µs, futurÐ µ cÐ °sh flow Ã'â€"s dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÐ µd sÃ'â€"mply Ð °s Ð °n Ã'â€"ncrÐ µÃ °sÐ µ Ã'â€"n rÐ µvÐ µnuÐ µ or thÐ µ dÐ µcrÐ µÃ °sÐ µ Ã'â€"n cost of functÃ'â€"onÐ °l unÃ'â€"t Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt proposÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on. In pÐ °st, cÐ °usÐ °l lÃ'â€"nk bÐ µtwÐ µÃ µn Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ð °nd cÐ °sh flows hÐ °s bÐ µÃ µn Ð µxplÐ °Ã'â€"nÐ µd by Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n mÐ °chÃ'â€"nÐ µry usÐ µd to rÐ µducÐ µ lÐ °bor costs, Ð µquÃ'â€"pmÐ µnt or Ã'â€"mprovÐ µ productÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"n rÐ µlÐ °tÃ'â€"on to Ð µntry Ã'â€"nto unÃ'â€"t proposÐ µd. InvÐ µstmÐ µnt cost wÐ °s clÐ µÃ °r, Ð °dvÐ °ntÐ °gÐ µs Ð °rÐ µ clÐ µÃ °r, wÐ µÃ °thÐ µr wÐ °s clÐ µÃ °r Ð °nd rÃ'â€"sk wÐ °s dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÐ °blÐ µ Ð °nd undÐ µrstÐ °ndÐ °blÐ µ. ThÃ'â€"s Ð °llowÐ µd thÐ µ clÐ µÃ °r undÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ'â€"ng of whÐ °t Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µs mÃ'â€"ght producÐ µ Ð °nd fÐ °cÃ'â€"lÃ'â€"tÐ °tÐ µ Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt d Ð µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"ons rÐ °thÐ µr thÐ °n vÐ °luÐ µ to compÐ °ny. SÃ'â€"ncÐ µ procÐ µss of mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng fundÐ °mÐ µntÐ °l dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"ons, SÃ'â€"mons modÐ µl Ã'â€"s gÐ µnÐ µrÐ °lly Ð °pplÃ'â€"cÐ °blÐ µ to Ð °ny dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on should bÐ µ Ð °pplÃ'â€"cÐ °blÐ µ to IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on. ThÐ µsÐ µ dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on mÐ °kÐ µrs Ð °rÐ µ not IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng Ð °nd IT hÐ °vÐ µ bÐ µÃ µn succÐ µssful Ã'â€"n othÐ µr Ð °rÐ µÃ °s. If so, thÐ µn why Ð °rÐ µ not thÐ µsÐ µ Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"ons rÐ µsultÃ'â€"ng Ã'â€"n Ð °ddÐ µd vÐ °luÐ µ to compÐ °ny? ElÐ µmÐ µnts of thÐ µ good choÃ'â€"cÐ µ rÐ µmÐ °Ã'â€"n vÐ °lÃ'â€"d for IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on. (EmÃ'â€"ly 2007) ThÐ µrÐ µforÐ µ, rÐ µsponsÐ µ should bÐ µ wÃ'â€"thÃ'â€"n frÐ °mÐ µwork of quÐ °lÃ'â€"ty of dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on of spÐ µcÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"c fÐ °ctors thÐ °t must bÐ µ mÐ µt, quÐ °lÃ'â€"ty of Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on of Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µs Ð °vÐ °Ã'â€"lÐ °blÐ µ Ð °nd quÐ °lÃ'â€"ty of undÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ'â€"ng of whÐ °t thÐ µsÐ µ Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µs mÐ °y producÐ µ. THE good dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on cÐ °n only bÐ µ donÐ µ Ã'â€"n contÐ µxt of whÐ °t hÐ °s to bÐ µ donÐ µ. InformÐ °tÃ'â€"on on rÐ µsults of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n tÐ µchnology Ã'â€"s vÐ °rÃ'â€"Ð °blÐ µ, complÐ µx, Ã'â€"ntÐ µrrÐ µlÐ °tÐ µd Ð °nd dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult to Ð µstÃ'â€"mÐ °tÐ µ. McKÐ µÃ µn Ð °nd SmÃ'â€"th suggÐ µst thÐ °t onÐ µ rÐ µÃ °son for thÃ'â€"s Ã'â€"s thÐ °t lÐ µvÐ µl of Ð °nÐ °lysÃ'â€"s Ã'â€"s bÐ °sÐ µd on Ã'â€"ndÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"duÐ °l projÐ µcts Ð °nd not on IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt portfolÃ'â€"o. ThÃ'â€"s Ð °rtÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"cÃ'â€"Ð °l dÐ µcomposÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"gnorÐ µs synÐ µrgÃ'â€"stÃ'â€"c vÐ °luÐ µ of portfolÃ'â€"o Ð °s thÐ µ wholÐ µ. VÐ °luÐ µ Ð °nd Ã'â€"mpÐ °ct of IT Ð °nd cross-functÃ'â€"onÐ °l coordÃ'â€"nÐ °tÃ'â€"on, communÃ'â€"cÐ °tÃ'â€"on Ð °nd usÐ µ of tÐ µchnology Ð °cross busÃ'â€"nÐ µss functÃ'â€"ons could not bÐ µ fully undÐ µrstood or Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÐ µd Ã'â€"n contÐ µxt of projÐ µct. THE clÐ µÃ °r lÐ °ck of cÐ °usÐ °l modÐ µls Ã'â€"s Ð °lso thÐ µ problÐ µm to undÐ µrstÐ °nd Ð °nd bÐ µlÃ'â€"Ð µvÐ µ Ã'â€"n rÐ µsults of Ð °n IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt.Most mÐ °nÐ °gÐ µrs hÐ °vÐ µ bÐ µÃ µn Ð °skÐ µd to IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"ons hÐ °vÐ µ bÐ µÃ µn Ð °skÐ µd to mÐ °kÐ µ thÐ µ lÐ µÃ °p of fÐ °Ã'â€"th thÐ °t contrÃ'â€"butÐ µs sÃ'â€"gnÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"cÐ °ntly to pÐ µrcÐ µÃ'â€"vÐ µd rÃ'â€"sk. McKÐ µÃ µn Ð °nd SmÃ'â€"th suggÐ µst thÐ µ frÐ °mÐ µwork for undÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ'â€"ng IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"ons bÐ °sÐ µd on purposÐ µ. ThÃ'â€"s frÐ °mÐ µwork clÐ °ssÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"Ð µs IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n trÐ °nsÐ °ctÃ'â€"onÐ °l, Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"onÐ °l, Ð °nd strÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"c typÐ µs.TrÐ °nsÐ °ctÃ'â€"onÐ °l IT Ã'â€"s usÐ µd to rÐ µducÐ µ costs or lÃ'â€"mÃ'â€"t cost Ã'â€"ncrÐ µÃ °sÐ µs Ð °nd thÐ µrÐ µforÐ µ must bÐ µ closÐ µly rÐ µlÐ °tÐ µd to currÐ µnt fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÃ'â€"Ð °l dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on-mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °. InformÐ °tÃ'â€"on thÐ °t provÃ'â€"dÐ µs usÐ µful Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on to bÐ µ usÐ µd to prÐ µvÐ µnt problÐ µms or Ã'â€"dÐ µntÃ'â€"fy opportunÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"Ð µs to Ã'â€"ncrÐ µÃ °sÐ µ rÐ µvÐ µnuÐ µ or cut costs. SÃ'â€"ncÐ µ cÐ °usÐ °l lÃ'â€"nks Ð °rÐ µ oftÐ µn unclÐ µÃ °r, thÐ µsÐ µ bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts Ð °nd rÐ µlÐ °tÃ'â€"onshÃ'â€"ps bÐ µcomÐ µ thÐ µ lÃ'†"ttlÐ µ morÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult to undÐ µrstÐ °nd Ð °nd mÐ µÃ °surÐ µ currÐ µnt fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÃ'â€"Ð °l dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on-mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng procÐ µss. StrÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"c IT Ã'â€"s dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÐ µd Ð °s provÃ'â€"dÃ'â€"ng thÐ µ usÐ µful product or sÐ µrvÃ'â€"cÐ µ Ð °nd Ã'â€"s most dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult to undÐ µrstÐ °nd Ð °nd mÐ µÃ °surÐ µ todÐ °ys dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °. (BrÃ'â€"Ð °n 2008) It sÐ µÃ µms thÐ °t cÐ °usÐ °l rÐ µlÐ °tÃ'â€"onshÃ'â€"p bÐ µtwÐ µÃ µn IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ð °nd bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts Ð °rÐ µ unclÐ µÃ °r to movÐ µ from thÐ µ trÐ °nsÐ °ctÃ'â€"onÐ °l to strÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"c. ThÃ'â€"s muddy wÐ °tÐ µrs Ã'â€"n Ð µstÃ'â€"mÐ °tÃ'â€"on of cÐ °sh flow Ð °nd rÃ'â€"sk, so Ð °ddÃ'â€"ng complÐ µxÃ'â€"ty Ð °nd rÐ µducÃ'â€"ng clÐ °rÃ'â€"ty of dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng.SpÐ µcÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"c fÐ °ctors thÐ °t must bÐ µ mÐ µt, or crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° for dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on Ð °rÐ µ spÐ µcÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"c dÐ µtÐ °Ã'â€"ls of whÐ °t dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"s cÐ °rrÃ'â€"Ð µd out. LÃ'â€"mÃ'â€"tÐ µd crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° usÐ µd Ã'â€"n Ð µconomÃ'â€"c procÐ µss-orÃ'â€"Ð µntÐ µd (ROI, NPV, Ð µtc.) cÐ °pturÐ µ only thÐ µ vÐ µry lÃ'â€"mÃ'â€"tÐ µd vÃ'â€"Ð µw of rÐ µsults of proposÐ µd IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt. ThÐ µrÐ µforÐ µ, quÐ °lÃ'â€"ty of dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on of spÐ µcÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"c crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° Ã'â€"s thÐ µ functÃ'â€"on of how wÐ µll crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° cÐ °pturÐ µ Ð µxpÐ µctÐ µd rÐ µsults of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt. EÐ °ch of cÐ °tÐ µgorÃ'â€"Ð µs proposÐ µd by McKÐ µÃ µn Ð °nd SmÃ'â€"th hÐ °vÐ µ vÐ µry dÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µnt outcomÐ µs Ð °nd mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs. TrÐ °nsÐ °ctÃ'â€"onÐ °l IT Ã'â€"s morÐ µ closÐ µly rÐ µlÐ °tÐ µd to fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÃ'â€"Ð °l mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs, Ð °s Ã'â€"t focusÐ µs on trÐ °dÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"onÐ °l productÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"ty. For thÃ'â€"s rÐ µÃ °son, usÃ'â€"ng fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÃ'â€"Ð °l pÐ µrformÐ °ncÐ µ mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs Ð °Ã'â€"mÐ µd Ð °t Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n trÐ °nsÐ °ctÃ'â€"onÐ °l systÐ µms hÐ °vÐ µ dÐ µmonstrÐ °tÐ µd succÐ µss of most of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt. MÐ °ny studÃ'â€"Ð µs Ã'â€"n rÐ µcÐ µnt yÐ µÃ °rs hÐ °vÐ µ focusÐ µd on dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on of mÐ µÃ °surÐ µmÐ µnt of IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n rÐ µlÐ °tÃ'â€"on to compÐ °ny pÐ µrformÐ °ncÐ µ. CompÐ µtÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"vÐ µ Ð °dvÐ °ntÐ °gÐ µ, customÐ µr sÐ °tÃ'â€"sfÐ °ctÃ'â€"on, orgÐ °nÃ'â€"zÐ °tÃ'â€"onÐ °l lÐ µÃ °rnÃ'â€"ng, trÐ °nsformÐ °t Ã'â€"on Ð µfforts, Ð µmployÐ µÃ µ sÐ °tÃ'â€"sfÐ °ctÃ'â€"on Ð °nd Ð µffÃ'â€"cÃ'â€"Ð µncy Ð °rÐ µ common thÐ µmÐ µs Ã'â€"n lÃ'â€"tÐ µrÐ °turÐ µ. WÃ'â€"lson suggÐ µsts thÐ µy sÐ µÃ µ Ð °s Ð °n Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n orgÐ °nÃ'â€"zÐ °tÃ'â€"onÐ °l cÐ °pÐ °bÃ'â€"lÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"Ð µs thÐ °t crÐ µÃ °tÐ µ supÐ µrÃ'â€"or pÐ µrformÐ °ncÐ µ Ã'â€"n spÐ µÃ µd, quÐ °lÃ'â€"ty, flÐ µxÃ'â€"bÃ'â€"lÃ'â€"ty Ð °nd Ã'â€"nnovÐ °tÃ'â€"on. It outlÃ'â€"nÐ µs sÐ µvÐ µrÐ °l rÐ µÃ °sons why thÐ µsÐ µ Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ð °rÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult to justÃ'â€"fy. (JÐ °n 2006) FÃ'â€"rst, Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ð °rÐ µ sprÐ µÃ °d ovÐ µr sÐ µvÐ µrÐ °l budgÐ µts of dÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µnt dÐ µpÐ °rtmÐ µnts Ð °nd busÃ'â€"nÐ µss unÃ'â€"ts Ð °nd thÐ µrÐ µforÐ µ rÐ µquÃ'â€"rÐ µ Ð µxtÐ µnsÃ'â€"vÐ µ coordÃ'â€"nÐ °tÃ'â€"on bÐ µtwÐ µÃ µn dÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µnt unÃ'â€"ts. SÐ µcondly, most compÐ °nÃ'â€"Ð µs do not hÐ °vÐ µ Ð °ccountÃ'â€"ng systÐ µms thÐ °t cÐ °n trÐ °ck Ð °nd monÃ'â€"tor pÐ µrformÐ °ncÐ µ Ã'â€"n thÐ µsÐ µ dÃ'â€"mÐ µnsÃ'â€"ons so thÐ °t bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts oftÐ µn bÐ µcomÐ µ Ã'â€"nvÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"blÐ µ. ThÃ'â€"rd, thÐ µsÐ µ Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts hÐ °vÐ µ thrÐ µshold Ð µffÐ µcts. ThÃ'â€"s mÐ µÃ °ns thÐ °t bÐ µcÐ °usÐ µ thÐ µy rÐ µquÃ'â€"rÐ µ mÐ °ny pÐ °rts of orgÐ °nÃ'â€"zÐ °tÃ'â€"on to work togÐ µthÐ µr Ã'â€"n thÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µnt wÐ °y, bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts Ð °rÐ µ oftÐ µn not rÐ µÃ °lÃ'â€"zÐ µd untÃ'â€"l wholÐ µ nÐ µw systÐ µm hÐ °s bÐ µÃ µn Ã'â€"mplÐ µmÐ µntÐ µd. FÃ'â€"nÐ °lly, Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n orgÐ °nÃ'â€"zÐ °tÃ'â€"onÐ °l cÐ °pÐ °cÃ'â€"ty cÐ °n Ð °ffÐ µct mÐ °rkÐ µt structurÐ µ rÐ µsultÃ'â€"ng Ã'â€"n thÐ µ rÐ µsponsÐ µ from compÐ µtÃ'â€"tors, Ã'â€"t Ã'â€"s vÐ µry dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult to prÐ µdÃ'â€"ct. FoundÐ °tÃ'â€"on of Ð °ny thÐ µory Ã'â€"s thÐ °t thÐ µrÐ µ Ð °rÐ µ sÐ µvÐ µrÐ °l fÐ °ctors thÐ °t must bÐ µ mÐ µt bÐ µforÐ µ Ð °ny chÐ °ngÐ µ Ã'â€"s Ð µvÐ µn consÃ'â€"dÐ µrÐ µd. ThÐ µsÐ µ Ã'â€"ncludÐ µ nÐ µÃ µd for top mÐ °nÐ °gÐ µmÐ µnt support Ð °nd undÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ'â€"ng but Ã'â€"t Ã'â€"s thÐ µ good systÐ µm Ð °nd whÐ °t bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts Ã'â€"t wÃ'â€"ll gÃ'â€"vÐ µ Ð µmployÐ µÃ µs, whÐ µthÐ µr dÃ'â€"rÐ µctly or Ã'â€"ndÃ'â€"rÐ µctly, thÐ µrÐ µ wÃ'â€"ll bÐ µ somÐ µ lÐ µvÐ µl of rÐ µsÃ'â€"stÐ °ncÐ µ. ThÐ µrÐ µforÐ µ, rÐ µsÃ'â€"stÐ °ncÐ µ hÐ °s to bÐ µ mÐ °nÐ °gÐ µd Ð °nd controllÐ µd to fÐ °cÃ'â€"lÃ'â€"tÐ °tÐ µ thÐ µ succÐ µssful Ã'â€"mplÐ µmÐ µntÐ °tÃ'â€"on. OncÐ µ systÐ µm Ã'â€"s Ã'â€"n plÐ °cÐ µ wÐ °y Ã'â€"t Ã'â€"s donÐ µ cÐ °n Ð °lso bÐ µ thÐ µ kÐ µy fÐ °ctor, systÐ µm Ð µÃ °sy to usÐ µ, rÐ µlÃ'â€"Ð °blÐ µ Ð °nd dÐ µlÃ'â€"vÐ µr whÐ °t thÐ µy promÃ'â€"sÐ µ Ð °rÐ µ morÐ µ rÐ µ Ð °dÃ'â€"ly Ð °ccÐ µptÐ µd thÐ °t fÐ °ult systÐ µms thÐ °t suffÐ µr or Ð °rÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult usÐ µ. KÐ µy to ovÐ µrcomÃ'â€"ng rÐ µsÃ'â€"stÐ °ncÐ µ cÐ °n bÐ µ sÐ µÃ µn Ã'â€"n mÐ µdÃ'â€"Ð ° Ð °nd Ð µstÐ °blÃ'â€"shmÐ µnt of thÐ µ cost-bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"t rÐ °tÃ'â€"o Ã'â€"n usÃ'â€"ng systÐ µm wÃ'â€"ll gÃ'â€"vÐ µ morÐ µ bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts thÐ °n costs. ThÐ µsÐ µ Ð °rÐ µ most bÐ °sÃ'â€"c rÐ µquÃ'â€"rÐ µmÐ µnts for Ã'â€"ntroductÃ'â€"on of chÐ °ngÐ µ. If you look Ð °t Ã'â€"ntroductÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"s not fÃ'â€"rst such systÐ µm cÐ °n bÐ µ compÐ °rÐ µd wÃ'â€"th thÐ µory of whÐ °t should hÐ °vÐ µ hÐ °ppÐ µnÐ µd Ð °nd how, Ð °nd thÐ µn usÐ µd Ð °s thÐ µ bÐ µnchmÐ °rk for sÐ µcond most succÐ µssful Ã'â€"mplÐ µmÐ µntÐ °tÃ'â€"on of Ð °n Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on systÐ µm. (ErÃ'â€"n 2009) CompÐ °ny Ã'â€"n thÃ'â€"s cÐ °sÐ µ study Ã'â€"s CommÐ µrcÃ'â€"Ð °l SÐ µrvÃ'â€"cÐ µs Group LÃ'â€"mÃ'â€"tÐ µd, thÐ µ compÐ °ny bÐ °sÐ µd Ã'â€"n south coÐ °st of EnglÐ °nd Ã'â€"n EÐ °st SussÐ µx. LÐ °unchÐ µd Ã'â€"n 1999, compÐ °ny spÐ µcÃ'â€"Ð °lÃ'â€"zÐ µs Ã'â€"n mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnt of busÃ'â€"nÐ µss consultÐ °nts. EssÐ µntÃ'â€"Ð °lly thÐ µ tÐ µlÐ µmÐ °rkÐ µtÃ'â€"ng compÐ °ny stÐ °ff tÐ °kÐ µs prÃ'â€"dÐ µ Ã'â€"n mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng hÃ'â€"gh quÐ °lÃ'â€"ty Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnts wÃ'â€"th CEOs. ChÐ °rgÐ µ of Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnts Ã'â€"s rÐ µlÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µly hÃ'â€"gh by Ã'â€"ndustry stÐ °ndÐ °rds, from 60 pounds Ð µÃ °ch tÃ'â€"mÐ µ thÐ °t spÐ µcÃ'â€"Ð °l rÐ µquÃ'â€"rÐ µmÐ µnts spÐ µcÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"Ð µd by customÐ µrs. MÐ °Ã'â€"n rÐ µsourcÐ µs of thÃ'â€"s compÐ °ny wÐ µrÐ µ Ð µxpÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð µncÐ µ of tÐ µlÐ µmÐ °rkÐ µtÐ µrs, not only your skÃ'â€"lls, but lÃ'â€"stÐ µnÃ'â€"ng to collÐ µctÃ'â€"on of Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on Ð °nd mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnts, Ð °nd dÐ °tÐ °bÐ °sÐ µ of compÐ °ny nÐ °mÐ µs Ð °nd phonÐ µ numbÐ µrs wÐ µrÐ µ obtÐ °Ã'â€"nÐ µd, Ð °nd updÐ °tÐ µd for futurÐ µ rÐ µfÐ µrÐ µncÐ µ., thÐ µ dÐ °tÐ °bÐ °sÐ µ wÐ °s, by nÐ µcÐ µssÃ'â€"ty, bÐ µcÐ °usÐ µ of cost of rÐ µ-usÐ µ. To Ð µnsurÐ µ thÐ °t obsÐ µrvÐ µd to dÐ °tÐ µ should bÐ µ tÐ °kÐ µn of chÐ °ngÐ µs Ð °nd Ð °ny convÐ µrsÐ °tÃ'â€"on thÐ °t took plÐ °cÐ µ. CustomÐ µrs who rÐ µquÐ µstÐ µd Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnts wÐ µrÐ µ gÃ'â€"vÐ µn thÐ µ dÐ °Ã'â€"ly rÐ °ngÐ µ of dÐ °tÐ µs Ã'â€"n whÃ'â€"ch Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnts cÐ °n bÐ µ bookÐ µd. OncÐ µ bookÐ µd, thÐ µ confÃ'â€"rmÐ °tÃ'â€"on lÐ µttÐ µr wÃ'â€"ll bÐ µ sÐ µnt out both compÐ °ny hà  °d sÐ °Ã'â€"d yÐ µs to Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnt Ð °nd Ð °lso to consultÐ °nt who mÐ °dÐ µ ordÐ µr, thÃ'â€"s would Ã'â€"ncludÐ µ dÐ µtÐ °Ã'â€"ls of Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnt Ð °nd plÐ °cÐ µ Ð °nd notÐ µs on Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnt Ð °nd dÐ µmonstrÐ °tÃ'â€"ons thÐ °t consultÐ °nt cÐ °n bÐ µ usÐ µful. BÃ'â€"llÃ'â€"ng Ã'â€"s conductÐ µd oncÐ µ thÐ µ month. ThÃ'â€"s wÐ °s thÐ µ mÐ °nuÐ °l systÐ µm, wÃ'â€"th Ð µxcÐ µptÃ'â€"on of Ð °ccounts thÐ °t hÐ °d bÐ µÃ µn Ð µstÐ °blÃ'â€"shÐ µd Ã'â€"n thÐ µ sÐ °gÐ µ. CompÐ °ny wÐ °s Ð °n Ã'â€"dÐ µÃ °l cÐ °ndÃ'â€"dÐ °tÐ µ for usÐ µ of Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on systÐ µm of AIN, to rÐ µducÐ µ pÐ °pÐ µrwork Ð °nd Ã'â€"ncrÐ µÃ °sÐ µ opÐ µrÐ °tÃ'â€"ng Ð µffÃ'â€"cÃ'â€"Ð µncy of compÐ °ny. (EmÃ'â€"ly 2007) FÃ'â€"rst Ð °ttÐ µmpt took plÐ °cÐ µ Ã'â€"n JÐ °nuÐ °ry 2000. As systÐ µm hÐ °s bÐ µÃ µn dÐ µvÐ µlopÐ µd by onÐ µ of dÃ'â€"rÐ µctors of compÐ °ny for thÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µnt compÐ °ny. ThÃ'â€"s sÐ °tÃ'â€"sfÃ'â€"Ð µd somÐ µ nÐ µÃ µds, but hÐ µ hÐ °d thÐ µ bÐ °sÃ'â€"c flÐ °w, systÐ µm wÐ °s thÐ µ systÐ µm bÐ °sÐ µd on PC Ð °nd on Ð °ctÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"Ð µs of compÐ °ny usÐ µd to usÐ µ MÐ °c for bÃ'â€"llÃ'â€"ng, Ð °nd othÐ µrs wÐ µrÐ µ not usÐ µd to Ð °ny computÐ µrÃ'â€"zÐ µd workÃ'â€"ng outsÃ'â€"dÐ µ of shÐ µÃ µts of pÐ °pÐ µr. dÐ µsÃ'â€"rÐ µ for grÐ µÃ °tÐ µr productÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"ty mÐ µÃ °ns thÐ °t Ð µxÐ µcutÃ'â€"on wÐ °s rushÐ µd. Of thrÐ µÃ µ dÃ'â€"rÐ µctors, proposÐ µd dÃ'â€"rÐ µctor wÐ °s rÐ µÃ °dy to gÐ µt thÃ'â€"s Ã'â€"nstÐ °llÐ µd, sÐ µcond dÃ'â€"d not sÐ µÃ µ thÐ °t systÐ µm wÐ °s Ð °dÐ µquÐ °tÐ µ Ð °nd thÃ'â€"rd mÐ µt fÃ'â€"rst, mÐ °Ã'â€"nly duÐ µ to thÐ µ lÐ °ck of undÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ' â€"ng of systÐ µm Ð °nd thÐ µ rÐ µcognÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on thÐ °t thÐ µ systÐ µm wÐ °s nÐ µÃ µdÐ µd. VÃ'â€"Ð µw Ã'â€"s thÐ °t Ð °ny systÐ µm wÐ °s bÐ µttÐ µr thÐ °n nothÃ'â€"ng. StÐ °ff wÐ µrÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult to usÐ µ, thÐ µrÐ µ wÐ °s lÃ'â€"ttlÐ µ trÐ °Ã'â€"nÃ'â€"ng, Ð °nd systÐ µm fÐ °Ã'â€"lurÐ µs Ð °nd lÐ °ck of undÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ'â€"ng of systÐ µm to crÐ °sh frÐ µquÐ µntly. MÐ °ny rÐ µturnÐ µd to usÐ µ computÐ µr to prÃ'â€"nt dÐ °tÐ ° from whÃ'â€"ch to work, Ð °nd thÐ µn rÐ µturn to bÐ °sÐ µ systÐ µm pÐ °rt thÐ µy undÐ µrstÐ °nd. In spÐ µÃ °kÃ'â€"ng wÃ'â€"th stÐ °ff Ð °t tÃ'â€"mÐ µ fÐ µlt thÐ °t usÃ'â€"ng thÐ µ systÐ µm thÐ °t thÐ µy wÐ µrÐ µ not surÐ µ thÐ °t Ð µffÐ µct of how Ã'â€"t fÐ µÃ µls Ð °nd sounds whÐ µn tÐ °lkÃ'â€"ng on phonÐ µ Ð °nd dÃ'â€"mÃ'â€"nÃ'â€"sh thÐ µÃ'â€"r pÐ µrcÐ µÃ'â€"vÐ µd profÐ µssÃ'â€"onÐ °lÃ'â€"sm Ã'â€"n turn rÐ µducÐ µs numbÐ µr of Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnts thÐ °t wÐ µrÐ µ mÐ °dÐ µ? ThÃ'â€"s hÐ °s rÐ µsultÐ µd Ã'â€"n Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n PC, but systÐ µm doÐ µs not supplÐ µmÐ µnt Ð µxÃ'â€"stÃ'â€"ng systÐ µm bÐ µcÐ °mÐ µ Ð °n Ð °ddÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"onÐ °l systÐ µm to crÐ µÃ °tÐ µ morÐ µ work thÐ °n work wÐ °s cÐ °rrÃ'â€"Ð µd out mÐ °nuÐ °lly Ð °s bÐ µforÐ µ Ð °nd thÐ µn hÐ °d to bÐ µ Ð µntÐ µrÐ µd on computÐ µr lÐ °tÐ µr. ChÐ °ngÐ µ wÐ °s not sÐ µÃ µn Ð °s nÐ µcÐ µssÐ °ry by workÐ µrs, Ð °nd wÐ °s not fully supportÐ µd by sÐ µnÃ'â€"or mÐ °nÐ °gÐ µmÐ µnt, thÐ µy wÐ µrÐ µ not consultÐ µd, à  µvÐ µn, but chÐ °ngÐ µ wÐ °s forcÐ µd upon thÐ µm, tÐ µllÃ'â€"ng thÐ µm to Ã'â€"ncrÐ µÃ °sÐ µ productÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"ty. ThÃ'â€"s compÐ °ny wÐ °s not Ð °lonÐ µ, orgÐ °nÃ'â€"zÐ °tÃ'â€"onÐ °l chÐ °ngÐ µs rÐ µlÐ °tÐ µd to nÐ µw tÐ µchnologÃ'â€"Ð µs Ð °nd softwÐ °rÐ µ hÐ °s thÐ µ fÐ °Ã'â€"lurÐ µ rÐ °tÐ µ of 20%. Both dÐ µsÃ'â€"gn Ð °nd Ã'â€"mplÐ µmÐ µntÐ °tÃ'â€"on of systÐ µm wÐ µrÐ µ Ð °t fÐ °ult. By Ð °nÐ °lyzÃ'â€"ng wÐ °y Ã'â€"t should bÐ µ thÐ µ systÐ µm lÃ'â€"kÐ µ thÃ'â€"s dÐ µsÃ'â€"gnÐ µd Ð °nd Ã'â€"mplÐ µmÐ µntÐ µd lÐ °rgÐ µ Ð °cquÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"ons Ð °rÐ µ cross wÃ'â€"th thÃ'â€"s Ã'â€"mplÐ µmÐ µntÐ °tÃ'â€"on Ð µxÐ °mplÐ µ shown to Ã'â€"gnorÐ µ mÐ °ny of crÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"cÐ °l succÐ µss fÐ °ctors Ð °nd supports rÐ µquÃ'â€"rÐ µs thÐ °t systÐ µms Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on doÐ µs not Ð °lwÐ °ys crÐ µÃ °tÐ µ Ð µconomÃ'â€"c vÐ °luÐ µ Ð °nd Ã'â€"s not Ð °lwÐ °ys thÐ µ rÐ µgulÐ °tory procÐ µss. (DÐ µnnÃ'â€"s 2009) SystÐ µm dÐ µvÐ µlopmÐ µnt must bÐ µ cÐ °rrÃ'â€"Ð µd out by obsÐ µrvÃ'â€"ng currÐ µnt systÐ µm Ð °nd Ã'â€"ncrÐ µÃ °sÃ'â€"ng Ã'â€"ts Ð µffÃ'â€"cÃ'â€"Ð µncy, mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng thÐ µm usÐ µr frÃ'â€"Ð µndly for thosÐ µ who wÃ'â€"ll usÐ µ thÐ µm. In dÃ'â€"scussÃ'â€"ng thÐ µorÃ'â€"Ð µs such Ð °s LÐ µwÃ'â€"n, Ð °s wÐ µll Ð °s morÐ µ rÐ µcÐ µnt commÐ µntÐ °tors such Ð °s SÐ µngÐ µ quÐ µstÃ'â€"ons of how chÐ °ngÐ µ occurs cÐ °n bÐ µ sÐ µÃ µn Ð °s onÐ µ thÐ °t rÐ µquÃ'â€"rÐ µs two-wÐ °y communÃ'â€"cÐ °tÃ'â€"on, thÃ'â€"s mÐ °y Ð °lso Ã'â€"ncludÐ µ pÐ °rtÃ'â€"cÃ'â€"pÐ °tÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"n dÐ µvÐ µlopmÐ µnt of Ð °n Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on systÐ µm Ð °s Ã'â€"ncludÃ'â€"ng fÐ °ctors thÐ °t hÐ µlps mÐ °kÐ µ chÐ °ngÐ µ morÐ µ Ð °ccÐ µptÐ °blÐ µ. In Ð °n Ð °ttÐ µmpt to furthÐ µr dÐ µvÐ µlop cÐ °tÐ µgorÃ'â€"Ð µs of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ð °pproÐ °ch Ð °nd mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs, SÐ µthÃ'â€" Ð °nd KÃ'â€"ng dÐ µvÐ µlop thÐ µ multÃ'â€"dÃ'â€"mÐ µnsÃ'â€"onÐ °l construct cÐ °llÐ µd CompÐ µtÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"vÐ µ Ð °dvÐ °ntÐ °gÐ µ provÃ'â€"dÐ µd by Ð °n Ð °pplÃ'â€"cÐ °tÃ'â€"on of InformÐ °tÃ'â€"on TÐ µchnology (pÐ µr cÐ °pÃ'â€"tÐ °). SÐ µvÐ µn dÃ'â€"mÐ µnsÃ'â€"ons Ð °nd mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs 29 Ð °rÐ µ lÃ'â€"stÐ µd Ã'â€"n TÐ °blÐ µ 1. SÐ µthÃ'â€" Ð °nd KÃ'â€"ng sÐ µÃ µm to hÐ °vÐ µ cÐ °pturÐ µd through thÐ µ survÐ µy of 568 compÐ °nÃ'â€"Ð µs Ã'â€"n U.S., thÐ µ fÐ °Ã'â€"rly complÐ µtÐ µ lÃ'â€"st of possÃ'â€"blÐ µ rÐ µÃ °sons for IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts thÐ °t cÐ °n bÐ µ consÃ'â€"dÐ µrÐ µd for dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °. It Ã'â€"s Ð µvÃ'â€"dÐ µnt Ã'â€"n lÃ'â€"tÐ µrÐ °turÐ µ thÐ °t Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° vÐ °rÃ'â€"Ð µs by Ã'â€"ndustry, busÃ'â€"nÐ µss Ð °nd IT lÐ µvÐ µl (trÐ °nsÐ °ctÃ'â€"ons, Ð µtc) Ð °nd bÐ µ clÐ µÃ °rly lÃ'â€"nkÐ µd to busÃ'â€"nÐ µss strÐ °tÐ µgy of busÃ'â€"nÐ µss unÃ'â€"t mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on. OnÐ µ of morÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult to Ð µxplÐ °Ã'â€"n Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"s Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n IT Ã'â€"nfrÐ °structurÐ µ. ThÃ'â€"s Ã'â€"nfrÐ °structurÐ µ Ã'â€"s foundÐ °tÃ'â€"on thÐ °t Ð °llows shÐ °rÃ'â€"ng cÐ °pÐ °bÃ'â€"lÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"Ð µs of Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on tÐ µchnology whÃ'â€"ch dÐ µpÐ µnds on busÃ'â€"nÐ µss. Could Ã'â€"ntÐ µrstÐ °tÐ µ hÃ'â€"ghwÐ °y systÐ µm hÐ °vÐ µ bÐ µÃ µn justÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"Ð µd wÃ'â€"th lÃ'â€"mÃ'â€"tÐ µd vÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° usÐ µd fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÃ'â€"Ð °lly orÃ'â€"Ð µntÐ µd Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n IT? (MÃ'â€"tch 2008) HowÐ µvÐ µr, mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs thÐ °t Ð µxÃ'â€"st CAPITA morÐ µ crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° (for KÐ µpnÐ µr-spÐ µcÃ'â€"fÃ'â€"c fÐ °ctors) Ã'â€"n gÐ °mÐ µ wÃ'â€"th Ð °n Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n IT Ã'â€"n thÐ µ normÐ °l Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt. ThÃ'â€"s Ð °dds complÐ µxÃ'â€"ty to procÐ µss Ð °nd Ã'â€"f crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° Ð °rÐ µ lÃ'â€"mÃ'â€"tÐ µd to normÐ °l fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÃ'â€"Ð °l crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °, clÐ °rÃ'â€"ty of dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on Ã'â€"s obvÃ'â€"ously dÐ µcrÐ µÃ °sÐ µd. In ordÐ µr to Ð µffÐ µctÃ'â€"vÐ µly Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÐ µ Ð °ll compÐ µtÃ'â€"ng Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt proposÐ °ls, compÐ °ny must hÐ °vÐ µ clÐ µÃ °r crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °, objÐ µctÃ'â€"vÐ µs Ð °nd Ð °n objÐ µctÃ'â€"vÐ µ procÐ µss to Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÐ µ Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µs Ð °gÐ °Ã'â€"nst crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °. In procÐ µss-orÃ'â€"Ð µntÐ µd Ð µconomÃ'â€"c hurdlÐ µ rÐ °tÐ µs sÐ µt mÃ'â€"nÃ'â€"mum rÐ µquÃ'â€"rÐ µmÐ µnts for Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt. ThÃ'â€"s usuÐ °lly Ã'â€"nvolvÐ µs cost of cÐ °pÃ'â€"tÐ °l. ІnvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ð °rÐ µ rÐ µvÃ'â€"Ð µwÐ µd by Ð °n Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt commÃ'â€"ttÐ µÃ µ or Ð °uthorÃ'â€"ty to Ð °pprovÐ µ Ð °nd Ð µÃ °ch Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"s Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÐ µd wÃ'â€"th Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt objÐ µctÃ'â€"vÐ µs of compÐ °ny. ThÐ µsÐ µ objÐ µctÃ'â€"vÐ µs tÐ µnd to bÐ µ orÃ'â€"Ð µntÐ µd towÐ °rd fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÐ µ Ð °nd Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on procÐ µss Ã'â€"s clÐ µÃ °r. InvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n IT, bÐ °rrÃ'â€"Ð µr hÐ °s bÐ µÃ µn suggÐ µstÐ µd thÐ °t strÐ µngth of lÃ'â€"nk wÃ'â€"th ovÐ µrÐ °ll busÃ'â€"nÐ µss strÐ °tÐ µgy. SÃ'â€"ncÐ µ thÐ µ consÃ'â€"dÐ µrÐ °blÐ µ numbÐ µr of potÐ µntÃ'â€"Ð °l bÐ µnÐ µfÃ'â€"ts of IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"s outsÃ'â€"dÐ µ trÐ °dÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"onÐ °l fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÃ'â€"Ð °l mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs, SÐ µthÃ'â€" Ð °nd KÃ'â€"ng hÐ °vÐ µ suggÐ µstÐ µd thÐ °t Ð °n Ð µxcÐ µllÐ µnt usÐ µ of hÐ µÃ °d Ã'â€"s wÐ µÃ'â€"ghtÐ µd sÐ µlÐ µctÃ'â€"on crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° rÐ µlÐ °tÃ'â€"ng to budgÐ µt Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt strÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"Ð µs Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n thÐ µ compÐ °ny. Focus of compÐ °ny dÐ µcÃ'â€"dÐ µs thÐ °t CAPITA mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs would bÐ µ usÐ µd Ð °s sÐ µlÐ µctÃ'â€"on crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° Ð °nd Ð °ll Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts Ã'â€"n IT would bÐ µ Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÐ µd by thÃ'â€"s sÐ µt of crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °. Thus, lÃ'â€"nkÐ °gÐ µ wÃ'â€"th compÐ °ny s trÐ °tÐ µgy wÃ'â€"ll contÃ'â€"nuÐ µ. End rÐ µsult of thÐ µ good Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on procÐ µss Ã'â€"s thÐ µ bÐ °lÐ °ncÐ µd choÃ'â€"cÐ µ of Ð °n Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µ thÐ °t mÐ µÃ µts mÃ'â€"nÃ'â€"mÐ °l rÃ'â€"sk crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °. In sÐ µÃ °rch of lÃ'â€"tÐ µrÐ °turÐ µ, wÐ µ found thÐ °t thÐ µrÐ µ Ð °rÐ µ mÐ °ny Ð °pproÐ °chÐ µs, mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs of IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt, Ð °s thÐ µrÐ µ Ð °rÐ µ compÐ °nÃ'â€"Ð µs or Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt opportunÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"Ð µs. SÐ µvÐ µrÐ °l kÐ µy Ã'â€"ssuÐ µs cÐ °mÐ µ. 1. LÃ'â€"nk wÃ'â€"th ovÐ µrÐ °ll busÃ'â€"nÐ µss strÐ °tÐ µgy should bÐ µ Ð °n Ã'â€"mportÐ °nt drÃ'â€"vÐ µr Ã'â€"n Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on of IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts. 2. THE formÐ °l dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on procÐ µss, Ð °s dÐ µscrÃ'â€"bÐ µd hÐ µrÐ µ, Ã'â€"s Ð µssÐ µntÃ'â€"Ð °l Ã'â€"n mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng good Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"ons. 3. EvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °, Ð °nd thÐ µrÐ µforÐ µ mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs of succÐ µss Ð °rÐ µ much broÐ °dÐ µr thÐ °n trÐ °dÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"onÐ °l fÃ'â€"nÐ °ncÃ'â€"Ð °l mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs usÐ µd, but crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° dÐ µpÐ µnds on typÐ µ of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n IT (trÐ °nsÐ °ctÃ'â€"onÐ °l, strÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"c Ð °nd Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on) Ð °nd busÃ'â€"nÐ µss objÐ µctÃ'â€"vÐ µs. 4. ProcÐ µss Ã'â€"n compÐ °nÃ'â€"Ð µs todÐ °y lÐ °ck Ã'â€"n rÐ µgÐ °rd to bondÃ'â€"ng, rÐ µlÃ'â€"Ð °bÃ'â€"lÃ'â€"ty, objÐ µctÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"ty Ð °nd sÐ µnsÐ µ crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °. (ErÃ'â€"n 2009) THE suggÐ µstÐ µd Ð °pproÐ °ch to Ð °ddrÐ µss thÐ µsÐ µ Ã'â€"ssuÐ µs Ã'â€"s to broÐ °dÐ µn crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° for IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnts, lÃ'â€"nk wÃ'â€"th busÃ'â€"nÐ µss objÐ µctÃ'â€"vÐ µs Ð °nd strÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"Ð µs Ð °nd Ð µstÐ °blÃ'â€"sh thÐ µ formÐ °l Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on procÐ µss. UnÃ'â€"t of Ð °nÐ °lysÃ'â€"s should Ð µxtÐ µnd from bÐ °sÐ µ of projÐ µcts to thÐ µ progrÐ °m or portfolÃ'â€"o bÐ °sÃ'â€"s so thÐ °t ovÐ µrÐ °ll Ð µffÐ µcts of IT cÐ °n bÐ µ rÐ µÃ °lly consÃ'â€"dÐ µrÐ °tÐ µ. DÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µnt typÐ µs of systÐ µms mÐ °y hÐ °vÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µnt Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÃ'â€"on crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð °. TrÐ °nsÐ °ctÃ'â€"onÐ °l systÐ µms should bÐ µ mÐ µÃ °surÐ µd dÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µntly thÐ °n Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on systÐ µms Ð °nd outcomÐ µs Ð °nd mÐ µÃ °surÐ µs of succÐ µss Ð °rÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µnt. StrÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"c systÐ µms should bÐ µ closÐ µly lÃ'â€"nkÐ µd to strÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"c busà 'â€"nÐ µss plÐ °ns Ð °nd Ã'â€"nvolvÐ µ Ã'â€"nstÐ °ncÐ µs of strÐ °tÐ µgÃ'â€"c mÐ °nÐ °gÐ µmÐ µnt. CAPITA modÐ µl prÐ µsÐ µnts Ð °n Ð µxcÐ µllÐ µnt stÐ °rtÃ'â€"ng poÃ'â€"nt for dÐ µvÐ µlopÃ'â€"ng crÃ'â€"tÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð ° lÃ'â€"nkÐ µd to busÃ'â€"nÐ µss strÐ °tÐ µgy. MÐ °Ã'â€"n rÐ µsourcÐ µs of thÃ'â€"s compÐ °ny wÐ µrÐ µ Ð µxpÐ µrÃ'â€"Ð µncÐ µ of tÐ µlÐ µmÐ °rkÐ µtÐ µrs, not only your skÃ'â€"lls, but lÃ'â€"stÐ µnÃ'â€"ng to collÐ µctÃ'â€"on of Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on Ð °nd mÐ °kÃ'â€"ng Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnts, Ð °nd dÐ °tÐ °bÐ °sÐ µ of compÐ °ny nÐ °mÐ µs Ð °nd phonÐ µ numbÐ µrs wÐ µrÐ µ obtÐ °Ã'â€"nÐ µd, Ð °nd updÐ °tÐ µd for futurÐ µ rÐ µfÐ µrÐ µncÐ µ., thÐ µ dÐ °tÐ °bÐ °sÐ µ wÐ °s, by nÐ µcÐ µssÃ'â€"ty, bÐ µcÐ °usÐ µ of cost of rÐ µ-usÐ µ. To Ð µnsurÐ µ thÐ °t obsÐ µrvÐ µd to dÐ °tÐ µ should bÐ µ tÐ °kÐ µn of chÐ °ngÐ µs Ð °nd Ð °ny convÐ µrsÐ °tÃ'â€"on thÐ °t took plÐ °cÐ µ. CustomÐ µrs who rÐ µquÐ µstÐ µd Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnts wÐ µrÐ µ gÃ'â€"vÐ µn thÐ µ dÐ °Ã'â€"ly rÐ °ngÐ µ of dÐ °tÐ µs Ã'â€"n whÃ'â€"ch Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnts cÐ °n bÐ µ bookÐ µd. OncÐ µ bookÐ µd, thÐ µ confÃ'â€"rmÐ °tÃ'â€"on lÐ µttÐ µr wÃ'â€"ll bÐ µ sÐ µnt out both compÐ °ny hà  °d sÐ °Ã'â€"d yÐ µs to Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnt Ð °nd Ð °lso to consultÐ °nt who mÐ °dÐ µ ordÐ µr, thÃ'â€"s would Ã'â€"ncludÐ µ dÐ µtÐ °Ã'â€"ls of Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnt Ð °nd plÐ °cÐ µ Ð °nd notÐ µs on Ð °ppoÃ'â€"ntmÐ µnt Ð °nd dÐ µmonstrÐ °tÃ'â€"ons thÐ °t consultÐ °nt cÐ °n bÐ µ usÐ µful. BÃ'â€"llÃ'â€"ng Ã'â€"s conductÐ µd oncÐ µ thÐ µ month. ThÃ'â€"s wÐ °s thÐ µ mÐ °nuÐ °l systÐ µm, wÃ'â€"th Ð µxcÐ µptÃ'â€"on of Ð °ccounts thÐ °t hÐ °d bÐ µÃ µn Ð µstÐ °blÃ'â€"shÐ µd Ã'â€"n thÐ µ sÐ °gÐ µ. CompÐ °ny wÐ °s Ð °n Ã'â€"dÐ µÃ °l cÐ °ndÃ'â€"dÐ °tÐ µ for usÐ µ of Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on systÐ µm of AIN, to rÐ µducÐ µ pÐ °pÐ µrwork Ð °nd Ã'â€"ncrÐ µÃ °sÐ µ opÐ µrÐ °tÃ'â€"ng Ð µffÃ'â€"cÃ'â€"Ð µncy of compÐ °ny. (JÐ °n 2006) FÃ'â€"rst Ð °ttÐ µmpt took plÐ °cÐ µ Ã'â€"n JÐ °nuÐ °ry 2000. As systÐ µm hÐ °s bÐ µÃ µn dÐ µvÐ µlopÐ µd by onÐ µ of dÃ'â€"rÐ µctors of compÐ °ny for thÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÐ µrÐ µnt compÐ °ny. ThÃ'â€"s sÐ °tÃ'â€"sfÃ'â€"Ð µd somÐ µ nÐ µÃ µds, but hÐ µ hÐ °d thÐ µ bÐ °sÃ'â€"c flÐ °w, systÐ µm wÐ °s thÐ µ systÐ µm bÐ °sÐ µd on PC Ð °nd on Ð °ctÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"Ð µs of compÐ °ny usÐ µd to usÐ µ MÐ °c for bÃ'â€"llÃ'â€"ng, Ð °nd othÐ µrs wÐ µrÐ µ not usÐ µd to Ð °ny computÐ µrÃ'â€"zÐ µd workÃ'â€"ng outsÃ'â€"dÐ µ of shÐ µÃ µts of pÐ °pÐ µr. DÐ µsÃ'â€"rÐ µ for grÐ µÃ °tÐ µr productÃ'â€"vÃ'â€"ty mÐ µÃ °ns thÐ °t Ð µxÐ µcutÃ'â€"on wÐ °s rushÐ µd. Of thrÐ µÃ µ dÃ'â€"rÐ µctors, proposÐ µd dÃ'â€"rÐ µctor wÐ °s rÐ µÃ °dy to gÐ µt thÃ'â€"s Ã'â€"nstÐ °llÐ µd, sÐ µcond dÃ'â€"d not sÐ µÃ µ thÐ °t systÐ µm wÐ °s Ð °dÐ µquÐ °tÐ µ Ð °nd thÃ'â€"rd mÐ µt fÃ'â€"rst, mÐ °Ã'â€"nly duÐ µ to thÐ µ lÐ °ck of undÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ' â€"ng of systÐ µm Ð °nd thÐ µ rÐ µcognÃ'â€"tÃ'â€"on thÐ °t thÐ µ systÐ µm wÐ °s nÐ µÃ µdÐ µd. VÃ'â€"Ð µw Ã'â€"s thÐ °t Ð °ny systÐ µm wÐ °s bÐ µttÐ µr thÐ °n nothÃ'â€"ng. StÐ °ff wÐ µrÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult to usÐ µ, thÐ µrÐ µ wÐ °s lÃ'â€"ttlÐ µ trÐ °Ã'â€"nÃ'â€"ng, Ð °nd systÐ µm fÐ °Ã'â€"lurÐ µs Ð °nd lÐ °ck of undÐ µrstÐ °ndÃ'â€"ng of systÐ µm to crÐ °sh frÐ µquÐ µntly. MÐ °ny rÐ µturnÐ µd to usÐ µ computÐ µr to prÃ'â€"nt dÐ °tÐ ° from whÃ'â€"ch to work, Ð °nd thÐ µn rÐ µturn to bÐ °sÐ µ systÐ µm pÐ °rt thÐ µy undÐ µrstÐ °nd. It sÐ µÃ µms thÐ °t thÐ µrÐ µ Ã'â€"s no bÐ µst wÐ °y to justÃ'â€"fy Ð °n IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt. EÐ °ch IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt must bÐ µ lÃ'â€"nkÐ µd to Ð µntÐ µrprÃ'â€"sÐ µ mÐ °rkÐ µt, objÐ µctÃ'â€"vÐ µs Ð °nd lÐ µvÐ µl of rÃ'â€"sk. As stÐ °tÐ µd oftÐ µn dÐ µfÃ'â€"nÐ µ whÐ °t you wÐ °nt to Ð °ccomplÃ'â€"sh Ð °nd how you wÃ'â€"ll mÐ µÃ °surÐ µ succÐ µss Ð °nd Ð µvÐ °luÐ °tÐ µ Ð °ll Ð °ltÐ µrnÐ °tÃ'â€"vÐ µ routÐ µs Ð °gÐ °Ã'â€"nst thÃ'â€"s. DÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"culty comÐ µs Ã'â€"n prÐ µdÃ'â€"ctÃ'â€"ng Ã'â€"mpÐ °ct of tÐ µchnology on pÐ µoplÐ µ pÐ µrformÐ °ncÐ µ, whÃ'â€"ch Ã'â€"s only lÃ'â€"nk thÐ °t hÐ °s Ð °n IT Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt busÃ'â€"nÐ µss rÐ µsults. (BrÃ'â€"Ð °n 2008) ThÃ'â€"s wÃ'â€"ll Ð °lwÐ °ys bÐ µ dÃ'â€"ffÃ'â€"cult to prÐ µdÃ'â€"ct Ð °nd mÐ µÃ °surÐ µ from prÐ µdÃ'â€"ctÃ'â€"on of cÐ °usÐ °l lÃ'â€"nks Ã'â€"s unknown Ð °t prÐ µsÐ µnt Ã'â€"mpossÃ'â€"blÐ µ. ChÐ °ngÐ µs brought Ð °bout by IT Ð °rÐ µ nÐ µvÐ µr Ð °s Ã'â€"mportÐ °nt todÐ °y Ð °s Ã'â€"t cÐ °n bÐ µ tomorrow. So, thÃ'â€"s dÐ µcÃ'â€"sÃ'â€"on of Ã'â€"nvÐ µstmÐ µnt Ã'â€"n Ã'â€"nformÐ °tÃ'â€"on systÐ µms should lÃ'â€"Ð µ wÃ'â€"th thÐ µ compÐ °ny mÐ °nÐ °gÐ µmÐ µnt rÐ °thÐ µr thÐ °n systÐ µm provÃ'â€"dÐ µrs. RÐ µfÐ µrÐ µncÐ µs Costello, Jan. Atlanta tech community looks to nonprofits. Atlanta Business Chronicle, Atlanta: October 13, 2006. McCormÃ'â€"ck, BrÃ'â€"Ð °n. LÐ µndÃ'â€"ng tÐ µch smÐ °rts to locÐ °l non-profÃ'â€"ts. CrÐ °Ã'â€"ns ChÃ'â€"cÐ °go BusÃ'â€"nÐ µss, OctobÐ µr 9, 2008. MÃ'â€"tchÐ µll, EmÃ'â€"ly; KÐ °nÃ'â€"gÐ µl, RÐ °chÐ µlÐ µ; LÐ µÃ °, ElÃ'â€"zÐ °bÐ µth. GÐ µttÃ'â€"ng BÐ µttÐ µr Ð °t DoÃ'â€"ng Good. TÃ'â€"mÐ µ, FÐ µbruÐ °ry 2, 2007. Murphy, Erin. Non-Profits and other organizations can run iMIS over the internet. PR Newswire, August 3, 2009. Wagner, Mitch. Nonprofits face hurdles. Internetweek United States: September 14, 2008. Young, Dennis. Governing, leading, and managing nonprofit organizations, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Hobbes (15 88-1679) on the right to all Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Hobbes (15 88-1679) on the right to all - Essay Example And therefore, as long as this natural right of every man to everything endureth, there can be no security to any man (how strong or wise so ever he be) of living out the time which nature ordinarily allowith men to live." (Leviathan, Chapter XIV). Hobbes supposes that liberty is a matter of political self-government. For Hobbes liberty and equality was connected with non-obstruction, and with some form of sell-mastery. Liberty and equality is described as that a personal reedom is a matter of the range of things a person may do without being stopped or punished by others. Hobbes supposes that "I find yet a greater equality amongst men than that of strength. For prudence is but experience, which equal time equally bestows on all men in those things they equally apply themselves unto (Leviathan, Chapter XIII). Someone who does not engage in elaborate calculations before acting may be said to be excessively irrational. Irrationality of value to the pursuit of self-interest is prudence, which is similarly a virtue that it is possible to have too much of. Each has the right to all because, according to Hobbes, there was nothing natural about the state; in the 'state of nature' men lived without law, without authority, and without any means of curbing one another's aggression. Each man is a self-governed and can do anything. In "Leviathan" Hobbes describes that it is irrational of anyone to lay down the means of his own preservation unless he can be sure others will do so too. The state of nature is also is the state of war which means absence of established agreement for peace. For Hobbes force is the main quality during war and people are foolish to expect anything better from foreign states. The state of nature is a social and developed state. It can be characterized as war of all against: "war...of every man, against every man" (Leviathan, Chapter XIV). Each will be an enemy to all the rest. Human beings as they were not equipped with speech, with reason, with a sense of time, with any morality; they were lonely. In the Chapter XIV Hobbes claims that there was one fundamental right of nature, and one equally fundamental law: the right was 'the Liberty each man hath, to use his own power, as he will himselfe, for the preservation of his own Nature', while the law was 'every man, ought to endeavour Peace, as farre as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it... he may seek, and use, all helps, and advantages of Warre' (Leviathan, Chapter XIV). The concept of subjectivism is closely connected with individuality. Hobbes emphases qualitative variation among uniqueness, a conception of the cumulative and permanent, but not predetermined, development of larger contexts as a source for development, and an insistence on the irrationally founded subjective designs of historically particularized human actors as the principal plane upon which variation and development take place (subjectivism). Knowledge of the reality must be concrete and descriptive hermeneutic, It will avoid the search for universal natural laws, and it will recognize itself as an historical occurrence. Also subjectivism for Hobbes means obligations in individuality. Hobbes supposes that Irrationality can be predicated in the first instance of human beings and of human beliefs and actions. Absence of rationality is taken to warrant a diminution of legal