Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Macroeconomics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Macroeconomics - Essay Example Both are equally bad for the national economy. Current GDP, Inflation and Unemployment Rate The US GDP in year 2012 is estimated at 15.68 trillion. Real GDP in the US increased by 3.6 percent annually in the third quarter of 2013 over second quarter and the inflation rate is estimated at 1 percent in the month of October, 2013 that is lowest since October 2009. Similarly, unemployment rate is estimated at 7 percent in November 2013 down from 7.3 registered in the previous month (US Inflation Rate). Unemployment Rate in Past 10 years The following graph taken from the Bureau of Labor Statistics provides unemployment rates for last 10 years period in the US (Source: It is interesting to note that during boom period of economy between 2003 and 2007, unemployment rate continued to slide. Post financial crisis it began rising rapidly and went up to almost 10% during 2009 and 2010. As of now it is hovering around 7 percent. Inflation Scenario in Past 10 years The US Federal Reserve states, "Inflation is a general increase in the overall price levels of the goods and services in the economy" (Federal Reserve). The Fed takes into account several price indexes while calculating inflation. The monetary policy is governed by the Federal Reserve and it aims at achieving maximum employment, low inflation and moderate long-term interest rates. The following graph shows inflation rates for last 10 years in the US. Source: It is amply clear that inflation rates vary significantly in last 10 years. During financial crisis, it touched to as low as -2 % in 2009 and prior to that it was at its peak at 6 percent in 2008. For last several quarters, the inflation rates are hovering between 1% and 2%. The Federal Reserve employs tools of monetary policy to control inflation and bring down unemployment rates as its major objectives. Monetary Policy Influences Inflation and Unemploym ent Usually, the Federal Reserve influences the federal funds rate that banks charge each other for short-term loans. These changes in short-term rates are eventually passed on to the businesses and households for their borrowing needs. Short-term rates also influence long-term rates such as residential mortgage rates, car loans etc. When the federal fund rate is reduced it triggers demand for goods and services. More demand for goods and services tend to generate more employment reducing unemployment rate that exist. Higher demand of the goods and services will also push the wage increase. Post 2007 financial crisis, the Federal Reserve took drastic steps to stabilize financial system and thereby the US economy. In this process, short-term interest rates were brought to near zero. Low interest rates aim at supporting businesses and households to finance new spending and thereby boost the economy and reduce the unemployment rate. However, in this process, there is possibility that i nflation rate would also start going up. As far as inflation rate is within the targeted rate, the Fed rate will keep using the tool of lowering the interest rate to boost the economy and generate the employment. The moment inflation starts exceeding the target rate, the fund rate will move in the reverse direction to cool down the economy and thereby control the inflation rate (Monetary Policy). Post 2007 financial crisis, when the economy was shattered the Fed resorted to the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Feminization Of Migration Philippine Workers Welfare Sociology Essay

Feminization Of Migration Philippine Workers Welfare Sociology Essay Introduction and Background In most places throughout the world, the term migrant conjures images of men, while the phrase, migrants and their families introduces women and children into the picture. Yet, statistics show that half of all migrants globally are female and studies document that women are active participants in migration, both within and between countries (Boyd, 2006). Philippine migration started as early as 1900s during the time of American colonial rule. The first Filipinos to migrate came from Ilocos and they worked in pineapple plantations in Hawaii, agriculture in California and fish canneries in Washington and Alaska in 1920s. During 1960s, different category of Filipino workers migrated to America, Canada, and some European countries. They were the so-called professionals working as nurses, doctors, and medical technicians. In 1970s, Filipinos were in demand in industrialized countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and Malaysia. They filled up the labor shortages in these countries and worked as construction workers, nannies, domestic workers, nurse and entertainers. The phenomenon in Philippine labor migration started during these years since large numbers of workers leave the country for employment. However, in 1980s a different trend in Philippine labor migration has emerged called feminization of migration. (Explain why?) This means that more and more women participated in the area of labor migration. (Add further explanation) A lot of factors attributed to the proliferation of women migration. In the previous studies, women migration could be a result of poverty, globalization, and pressure from family, among others. But the most common reason of these women who wants to find better opportunities in their chosen countries of destination is poverty. To escape poverty, these women leave their work and try their luck overseas. Some of them are professionals while others are a mere high school graduates working mostly in the services sector. However, the basic question lies in their welfare and protection in the third country. Hence, this study is conducted to identify the common issues and concerns encountered by these women and try to examine the Philippine government policy thru the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) to ensure the welfare and protection of these women in their chosen country of destination. If possible, this study will try to influence the DOLE policy makers by presenting sufficient data to justify the need to formulate policies specifically for women migrant workers (if there is none). Theoretical Framework Several theories are presented in this section to help the readers understand or gain insights on the migration of Filipino women migrant workers. Below are some of the theories: Feminist theory, according to Wikipidia (13 April 2009), aims to understand the nature of inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations and sexuality. While generally providing a critique of social relations, much of feminist theory also focuses on analyzing gender inequality and the promotion of womens rights, interests, and issues. Based on the same source mentioned above, the feminist legal theory is based on the belief that the law has been instrumental womens historical subordination. The project of feminist legal theory is twofold. First, feminist jurisprudence seeks to explain ways in which the law played a role in womens former subordinate status. Second, feminist legal theory is dedicated to changing womens status through a reworking of the law and its approach to gender. One of the theories that best describes the outflow of Filipino women abroad is the theory on globalization. Globalization (Wikipedia, 11 April 2009) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones. It can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural and political forces. Globalization is often used to refer to economic globalization, that is, integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology. Another theory that explains migration is the neoclassical economic theory (Sjaastad 1962; Todaro 1969). It suggests that international migration is related to the global supply and demand for labor. Nations with scarce labor supply and high demand will have high wages that pull immigrants in from nations with a surplus of labor (, 2009). The segmented labor market theory (Piore 1979) argues that First World economies are structured so as to require a certain level of immigration. This theory suggests that developed economies are dualistic, they have a primary market of secure, well remunerated work and a secondary market of low wage work. Segmented labor market theory argues that immigrants are recruited to fill these jobs that are necessary for the overall economy to function but are avoided by the native-born population because of the poor working conditions associated with the secondary labor market (, 2009). World systems theory (Sassen 1988) argues that international migration is a by-product of global capitalism. Contemporary patterns of international migration tend to be from the periphery (poor nations) to the core (rich nations) because factors associated with industrial development in the First World generated structural economic problems, and thus push factors, in the Third World (, 2009). In the Todaro-Harris model, the decision to migrate is largely determined by the individuals expectation of earning a higher income, with expected income being defined as actual urban income multiplied by the probability of obtaining employment (Ullah, 2004). Conceptual Framework Figure 1 presents the research paradigm of the study. Figure 1: Research Design As shown in the diagram, Filipino women migrant workers are also experiencing some issues and concerns in their chosen country of destination. This study will find out how these issues and concerns will affect the formulation of Philippine labor policy. Statement of the Problem This study deals on the Feminization of the Philippine Labor Migation as well as its implications on the countrys policy on workers welfare and protection. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions: What is the personal profile of the respondents based on the following: Age Marital Status Level of Education Employment Status Nature of Employment Length of Contract What are the common issues and concerns encountered by migrant women in the receiving/destination countries? What are the roles of the government particularly the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) in ensuring the well-being of the Filipino women migrant workers? What is/are the policy/ies of DOLE in dealing with the migration of women in terms of: Welfare Protection With reference to question 2, what are the implications of these common issues and concerns in the formulations of labor policy/ies directed to Filipino migrant women? Hypothesis The following hypotheses were considered by the researcher in the study: The common issues and concerns encountered by migrant women in the receiving/destination countries are not significant. The roles of the government particularly DOLE are minimal in ensuring the well-being of the Filipino women migrant workers. The policy/ies of DOLE in dealing with the migration of women are not significant in terms of: Welfare Protection With reference to question 2, the implications of these common issues and concerns are not significant in the formulations of labor policy/ies directed to Filipino migrant women. Significance of the Study Since the onset of the phenomenon called feminization of Philippine labor migration in 1980s, a number of researchers attempted to determine the factors that trigger Filipino women from leaving the country in search for a better opportunity abroad. This study will try to delve into the implications of the common issues and concerns encountered by migrant women in the destination countries to the formulation of labor policies/programs by DOLE. Further, the conduct of this study will acquaint the public on the difficulties encountered by the Filipino women migrant workers abroad. This will also serve as a guide to the Philippine government thru DOLE to formulate policies addressing specifically the issues and concerns of the women migrant workers. Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study focuses on the common issues and concerns faced by Filipino migrant women and its implications on the formulation of government policies to ensure their welfare and protection. The respondents shall be the women migrant workers employed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). In 2008, KSA was the top destination country for newly hires Filipino migrant workers with a deployment of 76,148. Of this figure, 24,508 were female workers. To save time and money, Slovins formula shall be employed to determine the sample size of the population. Particularly, this study shall concentrate gathering data in Alkhobar, KSA wherein one of the two POLOs in Saudi Arabia is located. Sets of questionnaire shall be disseminated to the respondents with the assistance of POLO-Alkhobar. The distribution of questionnaires shall be done in the POLO office wherein the respondents paid visit to request for assistance, asking for an advice and other grievances among others. The researcher shall also use interview method with the concerned government officials, non-government organizations (NGOs), private sectors and internet to facilitate the conduct of the thesis. Definition of Terms The following are the common terms used in this study. The terms were defined according to the context of the study. Some terms were taken from the DOLE and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) Glossary for Migration: Country of Origin A country where the women workers permanently resides. Feminization of Migration The increasing participation of women in the field of labor migration. Labour Migration The movement of persons from their home state to another for the purpose of employment. Philippine Overseas Labor Office (POLO) The POLO serves as the DOLEs overseas operating arm in the implementation of Philippine labor policies and programs for the protection and promotion of the welfare and interests of Filipinos working abroad. Push-Pull Factors Push factors are the reasons that trigger the workers to migrate in their chosen country of destination whereas pull factors are the attracting forces that lead them to migrate. Receiving Country The chosen country of destination by the worker. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presented the different literature and studies conducted by different authors both local and foreign to support the concepts and theories of the phenomenon called Feminization of Labor Migration. Related Literature In a study entitled, The Feminization of Philippine Migration in Europe (05 March 2009), the Philippine Migration is brought about by a combination of socio-cultural, economic, and political factors in the Philippines that push Philippine women to migrate, as well as factors in Europe that pull them to immigrate. The economic crisis in the Philippines has led to an increasing unemployment and underemployment, with practically no work available within the country. According to that same study, it was mentioned that as migrant workers, Filipinas experience a host of problems related to their employment situations. Because they are women, who come from the so called Third World, they are allowed to work only in the lowest job categories. They are particularly vulnerable to various forms of exploitative labour practices, being employed in jobs, which make use of their highly skilled and qualified labour at very low cost. The fact is women migrants are indeed subject to various forms of abuse when they work overseas they are paid low wages if they are paid at all, they work in terrible working conditions, and are subject to various forms of physical, sexual and psychological violence calling for necessary interventions on the part of the state (Rodriguez, 1995). With reference to the study entitled The Feminization of Philippine Migration in Europe (05 March 2009), it was stated that the withholding of wages and documents such as passports, low pay, long working hours, the lack of opportunities for meaningful career advancement, and the lack of work benefits and job security, are only some of the problems, which Filipina migrant workers experience in the work place. Many believed labor export exposed women migrants to harsh forms of sexual violence. Others believed that the out-migration of women was weakening the Philippines social and moral fabric and still others, believed that the out-migration of Filipinas as domestic workers and entertainers threatened the Philippine states subject status on the world stage (Rodriguez, 1995). The feminization of Philippine overseas labor migration, which had been male-dominated until the 1980s, belies the failure of womens empowerment in society. The increasing out-migration of women indicates a decline, or continuing limitation, in the share of work available to women in the production process; employment opportunities remain restricted and income insufficient. The majority of female OFWs are still in traditional reproductive work such as domestic work and cultural entertainment, health care and nursing, where the pay is low and the nature of the work involves a higher exposure to physical, sexual and other abuse. This in turn underscores the international division of labor, in which the Third World, or the South, does the labor-intensive and lower-paid work. It also demonstrates a persistent gendered division of labor at the global level, with the South taking on the menial aspects of reproductive work, which are thereby feminized, secondary, subservient, and inferior t o the masculine, dominant North (de Guzman, 2003). The increased understanding of the situation of migrant women should provide the basis for the formulation of policies and programmes that promote their equality with migrant men and that safeguard their well-being (UN, 2004). Related Studies For a long time, the typical migrant has been viewed as male and until 3 decades ago, female migration was generally overlooked. Since the middle of the 1970s, there has been a growing interest in womens immigration, first with the increase in family reunification, especially in Europe and from the 1980s, until today, the growing recruitment of migrant women for labour market needs especially in service (Casas and Garson, 2005). In recent years the term feminization of migration has become commonplace, even entering the public domain through media reports (INSTRAW, 2007). According to Nancy V. Yanger, in her study on the Feminization of Migration (2006), there has been a change in the international migration patterns of women: more are moving from one country to another on their own than to join their husbands or other family members. This feminization of migration raises several key policy concerns about womens security and human rights in sending and destination countries. About half of all migrant workers are now women (IOM, 2008), with more women migrating independently and as main income earners rather than accompanying male relatives (Martin, 2005). Insofar as men are increasingly unable to fulfill their traditional roles as economic providers to their families, and the demand for female caregivers continue to rise in the industrial countries, the pressure on women to seek new survival strategies for their families will continue to fuel the increase of female migrants worldwide (INSTRAW, 2007). The feminization of migration had also produced specifically female forms of migration, such as the commercialized migration of domestic workers and caregivers, the migration and trafficking of women for the sex industry and the organized migration of women for marriage (UNESC, 2006). Women are often recruited internationally to do reproductive work in other peoples houses or for service sector jobs such as waitressing or entertainment that are poorly and marked by high instability and turnover. Many of these jobs are unregulated because they are of borderline legality (such as sex work) or because they are not included in the scope of the destination countrys labor laws, which primarily cover productive work. The unregulated nature of reproductive work, which allows no recourse through the legal system, places many women migrants at risk of exploitation in the form of low wages, poor working conditions, or physical or sexual abuse (Yinger, 2006). Perhaps the most notable feature of female migration is the extent to which it is founded upon the continued reproduction and exploitation of gender inequalities by global capitalism. For the most part, female labor migrants perform womens work as nannies, maids and sex workers the worst possible occupational niches in terms of remuneration, working conditions, legal protections and social recognition. In this way, gender acts as a basic organizing principle of labor markets in destination countries, reproducing and reinforcing pre-existing gender patterns that oppress women. But it is not only women who perform these jobs, but women of a particular race, class, ethnicity and/or nationality i.e. gender cross-cuts with other forms of oppression to facilitate the economic exploitation of women migrants and these relegation to a servile (maids) and/or despised (sex workers) status (INSTRAW, 2007). In the north, the growing involvement of immigrant women in paid work is mainly the result of an increase in the demand for labour in unskilled and poorly paid jobs in the service sectors in immigrant-receiving countries. Domestic service, hotels and restaurants and personal care are all sectors that have large recourse to foreign migration labour and the development of exclusively female migration flows (Sassen, 1993). Immigrant women work in those jobs that are abandoned by the receiving country nationals (Casas and Garson, 2005). INSTRAWs Columbia case study found a significant number of middle-age women whose main reason to migrate was not related to economic or family reasons (as their children are already grown up) but rather to the expectation that new relationship opportunities are easier to come by in Spain than in Columbia, where women their age have a difficult time finding new sexual partners. Both the Columbian and the Dominican case studies found that unsatisfactory marriages factored in many womens decision to migrate, as it was easier for them to end the relationship after they had moved to another country (which contradicts the common assumption that the migration itself is the cause of the marital break-up) (INSTRAW, 2007). The studies have revealed the 2 dimensions of the role played by immigrant women in the economies of both their sending and their receiving societies: an active role on the labour market, sending remittances, becoming heads of household, etc. Certain academic and political circles would see to have established a link between feminization of migration, the active role of women as economic and development agents and empowerment. It is important to note that even though immigrant women participate in the economics of their countries of origin and destination, by sending large remittances and maintaining transnational households, this role as social and economic agents does not necessarily imply an increase in their status (empowerment) (Casas and Garson, 2005). As INSTRAWs (2007) (and many other) case studies show, by allowing women to become economic providers for themselves and for their transnational families, migration can increase their self-esteem, personal autonomy and status. Migrant women often measure their achievements only in terms of the benefits they are able to provide to their families and they are praised by others in similar terms. Migration can provide a vital source of income for migrant women and their families, and earn them increased autonomy, self-confidence and social status (IOM, 2008). In a study conducted by Monica Boyd entitled Women in International Migration: The Context of Exit and Entry for Empowerment and Exploitation (2006), women migrant workers who are admitted legally but temporarily, may be poorly protected by existing labor law in destination countries and they may have little recourse to state protection if abuse occurs. In countries of origin and also in countries of destination (IOM, 2008), female migrants may be victims of negative attitudes about women working at all, attitudes that affect their rights to leave the country without permission to receive further education or training and to engage in certain occupations. Globally, the International Labour Office (ILO) reports that the most frequently encountered issues regarding the working conditions of women migrant workers are low remuneration, heavy workloads with long working hours and inadequate rest periods, limited training facilities and poor career development. In some countries such workers also lack freedom of movement. Women migrant workers jobs are normally located very low on the occupational ladder and usually not, or only inadequately covered by labour legislation or other social security or welfare provisions (ILO, 1999). The broader theoretical approach to the analysis of networks as a factor behind migration now extends to the role of women in migration. A further factor that favours the increased visibility of female immigration is that migration is no longer considered to be the result of an individual decision but rather is best viewed as an integral part of family and community strategies (Stark, 1984) (Casas and Garson, 2005). Women migrate to work abroad in response to gender-specific labour demand in countries of destination that reflects existing values, norms, stereotypes and hierarchies based on gender. Thus, although laws regarding the admission of migrant workers are generally gender neutral, the demand for domestic workers, nurses, and entertainers focuses on the recruitment of migrant women. Moreover, in countries of origin as well, female labour supply is the result of gender norms and stereotypes that gear women to certain traditionally female occupations. Recruitment intermediaries, whether private or official, also contribute to reinforce gender segregation in the labour market (UN, 2004). Women have always been present in migratory flows, traditionally as spouses, daughters, or dependents of male migrants. Nowadays women are increasingly migrating as the main economic providers for their households meaning that they migrate autonomously as breadwinners a contribution that has served to increase their visibility within migratory flows (UN-INSTRAW, 2006). The global demand for migrant labour now prioritizes womens specific skills and traditional roles, such that: a) paid domestic work is increasingly performed by women who leave their own countries, communities and often their families; b) domestic service draws not only women from poor socio-economic classes but also women of relatively high status in their own countries; and c) the development of service-based economies in post-industrial nations favours the international migration of women workers. In the developed world, the combination of womens increased participation in the labour force and the failure to develop family-friendly labour policies and child, elderly, and disabled care options have lead to a strong demand for migrant women workers. Migrant women are thus a central support system for womens freedom in the developed world and they make a contribution that is under-recognized and undervalued (UN-INSTRAW, 2006). The increasing feminization of the Philippine labor export industry suggests that womens desperation to overcome the hardships brought about by worsening socioeconomic conditions in the country is the major push factor that drives them to leave, to bet on a brighter future abroad while turning almost a blind eye to the risks involved (Philippine Migrants Rights Watch, 2004). The feminization of international labor migration in the Philippines can be seen from several vantage points. For one, it can be seen as an extension of the freedom of mobility afforded Filipino women. For another, the involvement of Filipino women in international labor migration can be seen as a response to the demand for women workers in the more developed countries. The demand for women migrant workers also came at a time when the demand for male workers was slowing down in the Middle East, which was the major destination of migrant workers in the 1970s and the early 1980s. Countries of origin such as the Philippines were poised to respond to the demand for women migrant workers given the experience they had gained with large-scale overseas employment in the 1970s (Guerrero, et. al, 2001). Although women give different reasons why they consider overseas employment as a work option, these reasons invariably boil down to economic or financial considerations. Migrant workers mention the following specific or immediate reasons: to get a job, to support family needs, to send siblings and children to school, to pay for medical treatment of parents, to pay debts (Villalba, 2002). Compared to other countries of origin, the Philippines has, in fact, instituted various measures to ensure the protection of women migrant workers. Early on and several times thereafter, the government had instituted several bans on the deployment of domestic workers (1982 for Saudi Arabia, which did not push through; a general ban in 1987 and the gradual lifting of the ban as better conditions obtain in the receiving countries; ban for Singapore in 1995) and in the deployment of entertainers to Japan in 1991, in the hopes of stopping the migration of women migrant workers. Bans, as our experience showed, do not work; instead they only lead to irregular migrations, which puts women migrant workers in greater danger. Under the circumstances, the government instituted various approaches to protect women migrant workers (Guerrero, et. al, 2001). Republic Act No. 8042 (POEA, 1996) popularly known as the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 is an act instituting the policies of overseas employment and establish a higher standard of protection and promotion of the welfare of migrant workers, their families and overseas Filipinos in distress, and for the other purposes. Specifically, Section 2, paragraph d (Declaration of Policies) stated, The State affirms the fundamental equality before the law of women and men and the significant role of women in nation-building. Recognizing the contribution of overseas migrant women workers and their particular vulnerabilities, the State shall apply gender sensitive criteria in the formulation and implementation of policies and programs affecting migrant workers and the composition of bodies tasked for the welfare of migrant workers. In addition, Section 4 (Deployment of Migrant Workers) declared, The State shall deploy overseas Filipino workers only in countries where the rights of Filipino migrant workers are protected. The government recognizes any of the following as a guarantee on the part of the receiving country for the protection and the rights of overseas Filipino workers: a) it has existing labor and social laws protecting the rights of migrant workers; b) it is a signatory to multilateral conventions, declarations or resolutions relating to the protection of migrant workers; c) it has concluded a bilateral agreement or arrangement with the government protecting the rights of overseas Filipino workers; and d) it is taking positive, concrete measures to protect the rights of migrant worker (POEA, 1996). Implications of the Reviewed Studies and Literature to the Present Study The reviewed studies and literature were presented to support or refute the theories and concept employed in the study. Further, it is one way to appreciate the reasons behind the out-migration of women since 1980s and the risks and hardships involved. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Method of Research The researcher shall made use of the descriptive research. According to Calderon and Gonzales (1993), descriptive research is a purposive process of gathering, analyzing and tabulating data about prevailing conditions, practices, beliefs, processes, trends and cause-effect relationships and then making adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or without the aid of statistical method. Population and Sampling The respondents in this study shall be the Filipino women migrant workers employed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) as professionals and household workers among others. To determine the sample size of the population, the researcher shall employ the Slovins formula. In 2008, 24,508 women workers were deployed in KSA. Using Slovins formula, the sample size of 24,508 is 100 respondents. Alkhobar, KSA is the preferred place for the conduct of this study wherein one of the two POLOs in Saudi Arabia is located. The researcher shall made use of the Convenience Sampling in survey questionnaire in the selection of respondents and Purposive Sampling Technique in identifying the interviewees. Data Gathering Tool/s Primary and secondary instruments shall be utilized to aid the researcher in gathering data/information. A questionnaire shall be constructed that details the profile of the female migrant workers as well as the common issues and concerns encountered by Filipino women migrant workers. Webster Dictionary defines questionnaire as a set of questions for obtaining statistically useful or personal information from an individual. The questionnaire shall be presented in a question-answer format with suitable answers so that the respondents can easily indicate their response by placing a checkmark on the space corresponding to the answer. The researcher shall also conduct interviews on DOLE officials, non-government organizations, and Filipino women migrant workers here and abroad to solicit views necessary for the conduct of this study. Books and electronic data/information were also sourced out in this study. Data Gathering Procedures Questionnaires thru the assistance of POLO-Alkhobar shall be disseminated to the respondents by June until August 2009. Interviews shall follow after the result of the survey is finalized. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) deployment statistics shall be utilized to identify the Filipino women migrant workers deployed from 1980s to 2008. The same data shall be used to also identify the sector dominated by Filipino women mi

Friday, October 25, 2019

The new Frontier :: essays research papers

Question #4 Section 1 Dusty trails, wagon trains, and tough guys on horses, the images that come to most peoples mind when they think of the migration towards the western frontiers. Today we are able to see the obvious effects that this migration has left on our society even today; (Sunny and warm Phoenix, hip coffee from Seattle, and that strange utopia of its own, California) but what are some of the not so obvious effects that it left?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The late 1800’s was a time of many great opportunities and advancements for the American people. With gold being discovered in many of the western states, the construction of a trans-continental railroad, and more then enough land open for settlement one couldn’t go wrong with this new frontier. This is great for the greedy materialistic side of the American peoples, but what did it do to the over all psyche of us.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Americans have several combined viewpoints that exist when it comes to advancement within in our culture: â€Å"Because it’s there†, â€Å"We are Americans, we are better than you†, â€Å"and we are America it’s our God-given right to†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Because we’re happy, you should be happy too.† These thoughts were behind the whole western expansion and still exist today.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The â€Å"because it’s there† and the â€Å"it’s our God-given right too†¦Ã¢â‚¬  kind of go together hand in hand. We saw all of this open land the left of us and thought â€Å"why are we letting all of that go to waste over there?† We also felt because we had settled here and seemed to have such powerful hold on everything we saw it as our â€Å"God-given right† to take all that open space to the west over and claim it as or own, no matter who said other wise. So we went, and claimed it as ours, and as we all know it lasted. This mindset seems to still linger in our sub-conscious even today and such examples can be seen in many different situations. Granted the circumstances are slightly different but over all the implied thought process is still the same. America has the tendency today to see itself as the protective big brother of the world, and we are constantly getting into scuffles with the â€Å"bullies† of t he world. For example an insurgence breaks out in a different country and we see it as our duty to quell this uprising.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Analysis of Financial Performance of Pz Cussons 2012

ANALYSIS OF THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF PZ CUSSONS PLC AND RESEARCH MATRIX Background Information of the Company PZ Cussons Plc. is a UK based consumer products group. The principal activities of the group are the manufacture and distribution of soaps, detergents, toiletries, beauty products, pharmaceuticals, edible oils, fats, electrical goods and nutritional products.The company’s products can therefore be categorised into personal care, home care, baby care, beauty products, food and nutrition and electrical goods. They have supply chain and distribution networks in Africa, Asia and Europe. Their mission is to enhance the lives of customers with quality, value and innovation. Their vision is to be a growing and dynamic company who are passionate about their leading brands and drive innovation in everything they do.The company has four major strategies which are operating in selected categories where their brands have a strategic advantage and offering growth opportunities which are profitable; operating in selected geographies either through their own infrastructure or through partnership; operating a flexible and evolving supply chain designed to service their categories and working with people who share their unique CAN DO values. The company’s major competitors are Mcbride Plc. , Kao UK Ltd, Creightons Plc. , and Swallowfield Plc. Marketline, 2012). Interpretation of Financial Statements Using Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios These ratios measure the ability of a company to generate earnings in relation to its sales, assets and equity (Ready Ratios, 2012). 2012 2011 Return on Capital Employed 49. 6 = 8. 16% 107. 3 =16. 43% (PBIT/Total Assets-Current liabilities) 930. 5 – 322. 4 938. 5 – 285. 6 Return on Equity (ROE) 34. 4 = 7. 1% 70. 4 = 14. 85% (Profit after tax/Shareholders’ funds) 458. 3 474 Operating Profit Margin 49. 6 = 5. 77% 107. 3 = 13. 1% (PBIT/Sales) 858. 9 820. 7 Gross Profit Margin 309. 2 = 40% 325. 2 = 39. 6% (Gross Profit/Sales) 858. 820. 7 Overheads/Sales 134 + 125. 4 = 30% 135 + 83. 3 = 26. 6% 858. 9 820. 7 Sales Growth 858. 9- 820. 7 = 4. 65% (Yr 2 Sales- Yr 1 Sales/ Yr 1 Sales) 820. 7 The ROE is low 7. 51%, down from 14. 85% in 2011 which shows that a much lower profit has been made on the shareholders’ investments.This is largely due to the decrease in profits for the year. The reduction in profit has also impacted on the ROCE which is down to 8. 16% from 16. 43% in 2011. There is a marginal increase in the gross margin. This is as a result of an increase in the cost of sales which could have been affected by the rise in costs of raw materials as pointed out in the Chairman’s statement and offset by a small 4. 65% increase in sales. The operating profit to sales has reduced drastically, as a result of a high increase in overheads and the revenue increase.The increase in overheads was due to exceptional items related to administrative expenses. From the annual report, it can be seen that there was a supply chain optimisation project initiated to tackle rising material costs, wage inflation in emerging markets and to reduce overheads of manufacturing activities. This project is an exceptional item included in the operating profit. Other exceptional items included are the acquisition of Fudge by the company and an impairment of the Australian home care brand due to worsening trade conditions.It could be said these are one-off items which impacted on overheads and resulted in a reduced operating profit for the year but the group will need to improve its margins and control overheads to enhance its profitability. Liquidity Ratios These ratios measure the ability of a company to meet its short term obligations as they fall due (Ready Ratios, 2012). 2012 2011 Current Ratio 393. 3 = 1. 22 417. 4 = 1. 46 (Current Assets/Current Liabilities) 322. 285. 6 Current Ratio excluding current debt 393. 3 = 1. 70 417. 4 = 1. 65 322. 4 – 90. 8 285. 6- 32. 5 Acid Test/ Quick Ratio 393. 3 – 173. 6 = 0. 68 417. 4 – 151. 7 = 0. 93 (CA – Inventories/ CL) 322. 4 285. 6 Acid test excluding current debt 393. 3 – 173. 6 = 0. 95 417. 4 – 151. = 1. 05 322. 4 – 90. 8 285. 6 – 32. 5 The current ratio has fallen from 1. 46 to 1. 22 likewise the acid test ratio which has fallen from 0. 93 to 0. 68. There is an increased inventory level which may justify the statement in the financial review that â€Å"there were high working capital levels especially in Nigeria†. Another aspect to consider is the cash balance which was significantly lower by 34. 6 % to the previous year. It is useful to consider the business context. From the same eview, it could be noted that some capital expenditure took place which affected the cash level, the major one being the acquisition of Fudge which was mentioned above and an investment in a joint venture. Another key cash outlay was their contribution to the closed UK salary scheme during the de-risking exercise. The ratios are also impacted by the inclusion of borrowings in current liabilities which means the debt is repayable in the current year. If the ratios are recalculated by excluding the current debt, the current ratio would be more acceptable 1. 70, a marginal increase from 2011.The acid test ratio excluding the borrowings is 0. 95, a marginal decrease from 1. 05. This is because for the acid test, current liabilities (excluding debt) have increased more than current assets (excluding inventory). Given the explanations stated, these ratios are probably good results but a trend analysis may shed more light on the ratios. Activity/ Efficiency Ratios These ratios analyse how well the company’s assets and liabilities are utilised (Collier, 2012). 2012 2011 Debtors Collection Period 114. = 49 days 122. 5 = 54 days (Trade Receivables/Sales) (858. 9/365) (820. 7/365) Payment Period 104 = 69 days 117. 8 = 87 days (Trade Payables /Cost of Sales) (549. 7/365) (495. 5/365) Asset Turnover 858. 9 = 92. 3 % 820. 7 = 87. 4% (Sales/Total Assets) 930. 5 938. 5Inventory Turnover 549. 7 = 3. 16 x 495. 5 = 3. 26 x (Cost of Sales/Inventories) 173. 6 151. 7 365/3. 16 = 116 days 365/3. 26 = 112 days It may appear that the company is doing a good job at managing its receivables and payables with a decrease in both the collection and payment periods but knowledge of the credit limit and terms might have helped in analysing the situation as well as comparison with the industry average.Asset turnover has risen from 87. 4% to 92. 3% indicating that the company has been able to generate more sales with their asset base. This is as a result of an increase in sales revenue and a lower level of current assets, especially the decrease in cash level. Inventory turnover has declined from 112 days of inventory holding to 116 days. Both ratios are quite high which implies that inventory is been kept in the stores for a long time betwe en its purchase and its sale. The company would need to be able to manage its inventories more efficiently.Gearing Ratios It measures the level of debt/borrowings in relation to shareholders’ equity (Collier, 2012). 2012 2011 Gearing 0 = 0 15 = 3% (Long term debt/equity + debt) 458. 3 + 0 474 + 15 Gearing (including current debt) 0 + 90. 8 = 16. 54% 15 + 32. 5 = 9. 87% 458. 3 + 0 + 90. 474 + 15 + 32. 5 Interest Cover 49. 6 = 13. 78 x 107. 3 = 41. 26 x (PBIT/Interest Payable) 3. 6 2. 6 The gearing is 0 for 2012 indicating that the debt is repayable within the current year. By including the current debt, the gearing ratio shows an increase from 9. 87% in 2011 to 16. 54% in 2012. This is a more realistic debt level as the Statement of Cash Flows in the annual report reveals a ? 9. 4m borrowing in 2012. The interest cover has declined from 41. 26 times to 13. 78 in 2012. This is due to the decrease in operating profits but nevertheless the interest cover is still healthy. Shar eholder Return Ratios These ratios measure the return to shareholders on their investment in the business (Collier, 2012). 2012 2011 Dividend per share (DPS) 6. 717p 6. 06p Market value per Share ? 3. 23 ? 3. 4 (Both disclosed in the annual report) Dividend payout ratio 28. 8 = 83. 72% 26 = 36. 93% (Dividends paid/Profit after tax) 34. 4 70. 4 Dividend yield ? 0. 06717 = 2. 08% ? 0. 0606 = 1. 66% (DPS/Market value per share) ? 3. 23 ? 3. 64 Earnings per share (EPS) (Disclosed in income statement) 8. 03p 16. 48pPrice/earnings ratio ? 3. 23 = 40. 22 x ? 3. 64 = 22. 09 x (Market value per share/EPS) ? 0. 0803 ? 0. 1648 The earnings per share have greatly reduced from 16. 48 to 8. 03 due to the decrease in profits, as there has been no change in shareholder capital. The dividend paid has increased slightly, despite the fact that profits were low and this consumed a high portion of the after-tax profits as shown by the dividend payout ratio. This would suggest the company has a high shar eholder value.The dividend yield is an effective interest rate which fluctuates in relation to the share price. The yield has increased slightly due to the marginal increase in dividends paid and the reduction in the market value of the shares. The price/earnings ratio has seen a dramatic increase from 22. 09 to 40. 22 which is largely due to the decrease in the EPS. It however reflects that investors may have a high expectation for future growth. Ratio analysis is more useful when the ratios are interpreted as a trend over time or by comparison to industry averages, to competitor ratios or to predetermined targets.As such, two years is too short to draw meaningful conclusions about the performance of the group (Collier, 2012). Below is a five year summary from which the trend can be understood more clearly. PZ Cussons Five-Year Summary of Performance |In ? m |2012 |2011 |2010 |2009 |2008 | |Sales Revenue |858. 9 |820. 7 |771. 6 |838. 1 |660. 9 | |Operating Profit |49. 6 |107. |101. 4 |86. 2 |76. 4 | |Operating Margin |5. 77% |13. 1% |13. 14% |10. 28% |11. 56% | |Sales growth (year on year) |4. 65% |6. 36% |-7. 93% |26. 8% |- | |Current Ratio |1. 22 |1. 46 |1. 84 |1. 94 |2. 25 | |Gearing |0 |3% |6. 19% |10. 3% |14. 66% | |Earnings per share |8. 03p |16. 48p |14. 89p |11. 64p |11. 04p | |Dividends per share |6. 717p |6. 61p |5. 90p |5. 27p |4. 70p | Note: The EPS and DPS were disclosed in the financial statement. Whilst the operating margin and sales growth are based on the information in the table which were also gotten from the company’s financials, the calculation of current and gearing ratios are below: 010 2009 2008 Current ratio 403. 7/219. 1 354. 9/182. 6 327. 4/145. 4 Gearing 30/(458. 8 + 30) 44. 9/(389. 9+ 44. 9) 59. 9/(348. 7 + 59. 9) The figures show an increase in sales over the years with a sharp decrease from year 2009 to 2010, though a good operating margin was generated. This could imply that a low cost base was being maintained.There has been a steady improvement in profits with a substantial reduction in 2012 though there was a lower margin in 2009 which would suggest that profits as a return on sales was quite low. The EPS has increased year on year with a drastic decrease in 2012 due to lower profits. The DPS has increased marginally year on year which reflects a high shareholder value. The current ratio has declined over the years. It could be that there have been high inventory levels. It is vital to note that a working capital ratio that is too high may imply that the company is not utilizing its assets effectively as could have been the case in 2008.The company should seek to manage its working capital more efficiently. The gearing ratio has been on the decrease to a point of no long term debt in 2012. This may appear to be a good thing but it is worth noting that long term borrowings are needed to fund current assets. Research Matrix The matrix below shows a summary of the journal articles read in relation to this work. It identifies some themes found in the literature. The themes are ranked on a scale of importance with 1 being less important and 5 being extremely important to the analysis of my work. Authors of Journal Articles |Scale of Importance | | |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |Roman (2011) ; Sundkvist, Hedman| | |Profitability | | | |and Almstrom (2012) | | | | | | |Muradoglu, Bakke and Kvernes | | | |Gearing | | |(2005) | | | | | | |Cette, Durant and Vilette (2011)| | | | |Profitability : ROCE | |Koonce and Lipe (2010) | | | |Earnings | | |Bierman and Hass (2009) | |Earnings Growth | | | | |Banos-Caballero, Garcia-Teruel | | |Working Capital | | | |and Martinez-Solano (2012) | | | | | | |De Wet and Du Toit (2007) | | | | |Profitability : ROE | |Lifland (2011) | | | |Working Capital | | |Dossi and Patelli (2010) |Non-financial | | | | | | |Measures | | | | | Explanation and Analysis of Research Matrix According to Sundkvist, Hedman and Almstrom (2012), the profitability of a company is dri ven by controllable factors which are the internal resources of the firm such as raw materials and uncontrollable factors such as government regulations.One way of increasing profitability is to reduce costs. In doing this, the costs have to be broken down and cost drivers identified (Roman, 2011; Sundkvist, Hedman and Almstrom, 2012). This theme is important as cost reduction is a crucial way to maintain profitability. In the case of PZ Cussons, the supply chain optimisation project was initialised to cut down on manufacturing overheads. Muradoglu, Bakke and Kvernes (2005), argue that gearing ratio is vital in apprasing bankruptcy risk and investors like a low gearing ratio as there is a lower risk that they lose money on their investments. This theme is very important as a very high gearing increases the financial risk of a company.Cette, Durant and Villetelle (2011) stress the limitation of ROCE in that when a firm’s future outlook is good and this in turns leads to an inc rease in assets and there is no change in profit, then the ratio goes down implying the firm is less profitable irrespective of better prospects. This is extremely important as it highlights issues that should be taken into account when interpreting this ratio. Koonce and Lipe (2010) argue that the earnings trend of a company affects the investors’ acumen about the future prospects of that company as such a positive earnings trend enhances the price-earnings ratio. This theme is very important as it helps in our understanding of the price-earnings ratio. According to Bierman and Hass (2009), EPS growth can be ascertained by the use of share/stock repurchase and the variations in the rates used in profit retention. He argues for the use of earnings growth models.This theme is of little important to my analysis as there was no share repurchase in the current year of PZ Cussons and growth models were not used in my work. Based on the research carried out by Banos-Caballero, Garc ia-Teruel and Martinez-Solano (2012), they claim that a high investment in working capital has the ability to improve the performance of a firm in profit-terms up to an optimal point at which higher working capital levels would have a negative effect on performance and this point is reached when the cost of holding working capital exceed the benefits. This theme is important as it seeks to explain working capital management. De Wet and Du Toit (2007) emphasise the pitfalls of return on equity measure.As such the earnings figure can be subject to manipulation legally due to changes in accounting policy. This is extremely important as it cautions us in our interpretation of the ROE. Lifland (2011) argues that effective working capital management is characterised by an increase in asset turnover and a decrease in receivables and inventories. He also highlights the fact that companies may have to seek external finance to meet working capital requirements. This is very important as it se eks to give insight on the interpretation of working capital ratios In determining financial performance, it is also useful to consider non-financial measures such as employee and customer satisfaction as well as measuring business processes.Though these are supplementary measures, they cannot be substituted for financial measures (Dossi and Patelli, 2010). It is good to draw attention to this but it is of less importance to my work as I only consider the financial ratios. It is crucial to bear in mind that there are limitations inherent in the use of ratio analysis, some of which were pointed above. Another factor is that they are based on historical records. The values could be affected by inflation so it is useful to modify the profits to reflect holding gains and losses which result from variation in the value of assets and liabilities (Cette, Durant and Villetelle, 2011). Despite all this, ratios remain a significant tool in analysing financial statements (Collier, 2012).Based on my analysis, PZ Cussons seems to performing quite well; the business environment and the challenges in the different divisions might account for the lower performance this year. However, it is vital to note that this analysis was based on annual reports which are produced in part for public relations. As such companies seek to promote their interests therein. To fully understand the company performance, an evaluation of the industry information and competitor performance would be required. References: Banos-Caballero, S. , Garcia-Teruel, P. and Martinez-Solano, P. (2012) â€Å"How does working capital management affect the profitability of Spanish SMEs? † Small Business Economics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 517-529. Bierman Jr , Harold and Hass, J.E. (2009) â€Å"Explaining Earnings Per Share Growth†, Journal of Portfolio Management, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 166-169. Cette, G. , Durant, D. and Villetelle, J. (2011) â€Å"Asset Price Changes and Macroeconomic Measurement of Pro fitability†, Review of Income & Wealth, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 364-378. Collier, P. M. (2012) Accounting for Managers Interpreting Accounting Information for Decision Making 4th edn. Sussex: John Wiley & Sons. De Wet, J. H. V. H. and Du Toit, E. (2007) â€Å"Return on equity: A popular, but flawed measure of corporate financial performance†, South African Journal of Business Management, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 59-69. Dossi, A. and Patelli, L. 2010) â€Å"You Learn From What You Measure: Financial and Non-financial Performance Measures in Multinational Companies†, Long range planning, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 498-526. Koonce, L. and Lipe, M. G. (2010) â€Å"Earnings Trend and Performance Relative to Benchmarks: How Consistency Influences Their Joint Use†, Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 859-884. Lifland, S. A. (2011) â€Å"The Corporate Soap-Opera â€Å"As the Cash Turns†: Management of Working Capital and Potential External Financing Needsà ¢â‚¬ , Review of Business, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 35-46. Marketline (2012) ‘Company Profile PZ Cussons Plc’. Marketline Report [Online]. Available at www. marketline. com (Accessed: 7 November 2012). Muradoglu, G. , Bakke, M. nd Kvernes, G. L. (2005) â€Å"An investment strategy based on gearing ratio†, Applied Economics Letters, vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 801-804. PZ Cussons (2012) Annual Reports and Accounts. Available at http://www. pzcussons. com/pzc/ir/reports (Accessed: 6 November 2012). Ready Ratios (2012) Reference. Available at http://www. readyratios. com/reference (Accessed : 5 December 2012). Roman, F. J. (2011) A Case Study on Cost Estimation and Profitability Analysis at Continental Airlines, American Accounting Association. Sundkvist, R. , Hedman, R. and Almstrom, P. (2012) â€Å"A model for linking shop floor improvements to manufacturing cost and profitability†, International

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Macroeconomics Essay

If an economy produces final output worth $5 trillion, then the amount of gross income generated by that production: is $5 trillion 2. Which of the following would not be Ian expenditure on a final good or service? a medical clinic’s purchase of flu vaccine 3. Which of the following would be included in GDP? payment of the monthly telephone bill by Mr. Laconic 4. Consumption in the expenditures approach to calculating GDP includes: purchases of medical services at the local clinic 5. Which of the following is not considered a component of investment when alculating GDP? purchases of corporate stock 6. Which of the following is not included in GDP? interest payments on the national debt 7. Which of the following would not increase U. S. GDP? increased shipments of Ghanian cocoa to the United States on Greek vessels 8. A farmer grows wheat and sells it to a bakery for $5. The bakery bakes the wheat into bread, which it sells to a distributor for $20. The distributor sells the bread to a supermarket for $30, which sells the bread to customers for $50. Which of the following is true? The supermarket contributed more, in value added, than the bakery. 9. The simple circular flow model shows that: households are on the supply side of the resource market and the demand side of the product market 10. Suppose that the economy is in equilibrium with a trade deficit and that saving is greater than investment. According to the circular flow model, the government’s budget: must be in deficit 1 1 . Which of the following statements is true regarding leakages and injections? Since leakages equal injections, aggregate income equals aggregate expenditure. 2. Which of the following is an injection into the circular flow? transfer payments 13. Which of the following would not be included in the measurement of GDP? transactions in the underground economy 14. GDP is a poor measure of social well-being because: the value of leisure time is not counted in GDP 15. Given the following hypothetical data: C = $3,000; I = $1,200; G = $2,000; X- M $500; depreciation = $200; transfer payments = $800, net domestic product is: $5,500 16. Limitations of the national income accounting system include: valuing all output t its market price regardless of whether it contributes to a society’s economic welfare 17. The price index in the base year always equals: 100 18. Exhibit 01 Product Bread Gum Quantity in market basket 10 5 50 Price in base year $1. 00 1. 00 0. 20 current year $1. 50 2. 00 0. 50 Use the information in [Exhibit 01] to calculate the consumer price index in the current year. CPI = 200 19. If real GDP in a particular year is $5,000 trillion and nominal GDP in that same year is $4,000 trillion, then the: GDP price index is 80 20. A major difference between the CPI and the GDP price index is that the CPI includes: a sample of goods consumed, including imported goods, and the price index includes all domestically produced goods 21 . In double-entry book keeping system of GDP: the value of output produced must equal the value of resource payments generated in producing that output 22. Gross Domestic Product measures the: market value of all final goods and services produced by resources located within a nation regardless of who owns those resources 23. The value of the films produced in the United States starring Charlie

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Increasing Effective Communication in Healthcare

Increasing Effective Communication in Healthcare Abstract Efficient communication is necessary in the healthcare sector. Health practitioners are working collaboratively in order to enhance their success in handling vital medical matters. This paper critically analyzes the provisions of communication in providing quality patient-centred healthcare services.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Increasing Effective Communication in Healthcare specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This occurs with reference to existing literatures, government policies, various publications, released reports, and other relevant health frameworks meant to enhance inter-professional collaborations. It is crucial to agree that increasing effective communication in healthcare is vital when scrutinized critically. The essence of communication in the healthcare context is to promote inter-professional relationships and consolidate varying experiences in order to enhance efficiency, reliabili ty, and effectiveness in the delivery of healthcare services. Patient-centred healthcare is a crucial provision in handling the sick. Effective communication allows numerous physicians to execute their obligations with precision. It indicates that the concerned health practitioners will attain higher levels of proficiency in their work. They receive support from other experienced medics hence enhancing the professional relationships indicated earlier. Precisely, it is crucial to collaborate in the health matters through effective communication in order to be successful (Wilson Rockstraw, 2012). Statement of the Business Scenario King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSHRC) is a leading referral hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Evidently, the hospital has enacted various aspects of communication and change including electronic health record (EHR) in order to realize its current performance and efficiency success despite the challenges. There are various barriers to inter-professional healthcare endeavors. One such factor is inadequate communication provision among the concerned professionals. Other barriers include occupational cultures, prejudice, resource allocation, interpersonal differences, large number of participants, poor coordination, ignorance of multi-professional benefits, political issues, and other relevant concerns. Others include leadership ambiguity, apathy of team members, and lack of commitment.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In order to minimize such barriers, it is proper to enhance interpersonal communication, form a fully constituted team, avoid personal differences, minimized devastating occupational cultures, coordinate, cooperate, and form a team with considerable number of professionals. For example, after realizing that lack of effective communication can have adverse effects on the performa nce within King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSHRC), the organization has opted to reorganize its communication processes (Jelena, 2007). Recently, the organization has instituted the compliance and quality control departments. It pursues strategies that determine the nature of training considered suitable for its employees. Though such initiatives are innovative, the establishments of such communication improvement strategies have resulted into increased efficiency. As such, companies have been able to produce high quality product and services. However, the process of offering cost reduction initiatives has compromised such companies’ competitiveness. Lack of sufficient and reliable information linking training to workforce performance is a serious problem to corporations intending to implement such strategies. Further, institutions have been unable to establish specific communication attributes that may facilitate improved workforce performance. Neverthe less, such employees are required to perform different functions. Analysis of the Organizations and Business Processes It is possible for patients to achieve quality services when handled by multiple professionals in the healthcare context. Interdisciplinary communication helps in enhancing healthcare by augmenting coordination of services, especially for multifaceted medical complications. In case a patient has a complex and acute health condition, collaborative healthcare will help in enhancing the speed of handling the case and other lucrative provision in the very situation. Speed is crucial in every circumstance. It helps in executing duties with precision and promptness, a fact that is demanded considerably in the healthcare sectors (Couch 1998). It is possible to attain quality patient-centred care when healthcare processes are executed with efficiency and speed. This is helpful in attaining the demanded success. Critically, it is vital to collaborate in order to attain the d emanded rapidity, efficiency, and medical competence. Additionally, it is feasible to integrate healthcare facilities for a vast range of healthcare complications and needs.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Increasing Effective Communication in Healthcare specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is practicable since various specialists will come together to handle various complications with promptness (Enthoven Vorhaus 1997).  Lord Darzs report indicates that healthcare experts emerging from varying medical fields habitually collaborate in order to advance treatment processes (CSIP 2008). This indicates why communication is quite lucrative in the medical context and to patients in particular. The overall output of such caregivers will increase tremendously. Accordingly, this provision might enhance job satisfaction among the health practitioners. It is crucial to augment such healthcare provisions in order t o remain relevant in the industry and perform the required duties with precision. Collaborative services in healthcare are crucial following their considerable contributions to quality and precision in patients. For example (in the hospitalized patients), the coordination between nurses and physicians is very crucial in executing the desired medical processes. There are situations that demand the interventions of physical therapist, respiratory therapist, or a medical practitioner in order to stabilize a given condition in the patient. Such specialists, when working together, are able to attain the required success in the entire treatment processes. In the publication named â€Å"Valuing Peoples†, communication is able to enhance professional development in the realms of skills and knowledge. According to NHF standards related to mental wellness, the essence of this is to embrace collaborative healthcare provisions (Department of Health 1999). This conforms to the demands of attaining proficient and successful healthcare practices. When health practitioners from different disciplines come together to solve a given medical case, it is possible to succeed prominently since each of them might bring a different idea helpful in the case (Drinka Clark 2000). This supports the aspects of communication in healthcare. Crucially, it is advisable to attain critical medical concepts in such provisions hence conforming to the alleged developmental issues. This is a critical stipulation in the healthcare context. As mentioned earlier, it is possible to attain efficiency and rapidity when executing various healthcare tasks (Jones 2005). This is possible since every physician in the concerned task will endeavour to accomplish his or her obligations with precision and promptness. Consequently, each participant is able to develop skilfully and knowledgeably. Communication in the patient-centred healthcare helps in empowering patients during their treatment periods. Addi tionally, it is crucial to collaborate on critical health conditions that require expertise from different specialists (Wilson Rockstraw 2012). This helps in motivation various patients as they battle their illnesses. Physicians from varying healthcare disciplines can come together to handle complicated health conditions.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This can be a critical psychological and physical motivator to patients. Empowering patients can enhance their recovery rates as evident in various medical contexts. Hence, by performing a collaborative healthcare practice, a patient might get optimistic thus boosting his or her immunity, mental, and physical conditions for quick recovery. Interdisciplinary communication is effective in healthcare following its merits with regard to medical provisions. This is relevant since there are different disciplines in the medical field, which must be integrated (professional collaboration) in order to attain the desired medical success on the concerned patients. For example, sharing the progress of a patient within team members (whether on improvement or deterioration) is crucial. The move helps in formulating appropriate measures to be taken on the patient to enhance the aspects of high quality patient-centred care. This indicates the importance of communication in the context of healthcare as well as other viable sectors. The matter is equally applicable on acute instances where patients need immediate attention from the concerned physicians. From this argument, it is evident that collaborative healthcare provisions provide the demanded efficiency within the healthcare context. This conforms to the argument that viable communication (professional collaboration) is paramount in providing high quality patient-centred care (Taylor Lessin 1996). The fact that communication brings different but experienced personalities together indicates its potentiality in the healthcare perspective.  Concurrently, another aspect of communication that allows it to bestow quality patient-centred care is its ability to permit the concerned practitioners to learn new skills and novel medical approaches meant for different health complications. This will promote quality healthcare practices since the concerned healthcare practitioners will have vast knowledge in multiple fields hence sup porting the aspects of professional collaboration. This is helpful in serving patients with varying health complications. Precisely, communication helps the concerned medical practitioners to share expertise in various fields in order to attain an ultimate success (Liff, 2011). For example, a practitioner knowledgeable in neurosurgery can gain considerably in haematology if a patient under treatment required multiple medical attentions.  In the publication â€Å"No Decisions about Me minus Me†, it is crucial to recognize that patients are active partners in the healthcare provision (Thornton, 2011). They also need to make their preferred choice on who, how, and when to treat them despite the barriers. Inter-professional healthcare provision allows patients to work with medics they prefer with respect to confidentiality. Calming patients psychologically and encouraging them through various medical processes is helpful in achieving quality patient-centred care. It means that the patient is highly valued, and his or her health is prioritized. Similarly, this contributes to the improvement of the patient’s safety and confidentiality (Forman, 2011). Collaborative healthcare practices focuses on the wellbeing of patients and quick recovery from the concerned illnesses. Ability to induce cooperation from the patient is a credible provision worth consideration. Discussion of Healthcare Application System Solutions The advantages and disadvantages of the solution discussed against a set of weighted objectives, established in the previous section and supported from current literature are critical. Brilliant communication is quite beneficial in the healthcare context. Considerably, health practitioners can gain a lot with regard to efficient communication. They have a chance to appreciate the merits that collaborative healthcare provisions can offer to the concerned healthcare practitioners. Obviously, communication enhances the aspects of communication b etween health practitioners and patients (Guo 2009). Since patients play critical roles in the healthcare processes, this is a considerable benefit. It is crucial to enhance communication between the two parties for a maximized quality patient-centred care. Additionally, collaborative communication grants multiple communication approaches to medics. It helps in eradicating stigma that might hinder courage and quality healthcare provisional aspects. Whenever team members work collectively, it is advisable that they communicate effectively in order to enhance their understanding on the concerned medical condition. Contextually, it is crucial to note that stigmatization can interfere with the processes of healthcare. According to Lord Liams Report, it is advantageous if team working can eradicate such stigmas. This is helpful in overcoming learning barriers. Another evident benefit is that team working fosters enjoyment and apprehension of other disciplines, a fact that helps in eradic ating interdisciplinary conflicts among health practitioners through efficient communication. In addition, collaborative team working helps students to strategize for future practices, enhance their participation in learning, and challenge incredible cultures practiced in other disciplines. In order to achieve such benefits, interdisciplinary professionals must abide by the medical ethics and virtues proclaimed in the healthcare provisions. Recommended Solution and Implementation Issues NHF standards related to mental wellness indicate that most governments strive to protect the health of their people; thus, they have established supportive plans to ensure that the available healthcare facilities provide quality and patient-centred care. This has necessitated the provisions of effective communication within the healthcare system. All health practitioners are expected to cooperate with each other in order to increase efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity required in the healthc are industry. This is a critical phenomenon in various contexts. It is crucial to agree that collaborative healthcare provisions will enhance the aspects of quality patient-centred care to the sick. Most of the government policies promote the provisions of collaborative healthcare delivery. This is meant to enhance the experience of various health practitioners enabling them to be resourceful in their careers (Kelly, 2012).  Additionally, healthcare communication policies support innovation by health practitioners. This promotes the achievement of credible results in the realms of quality patient-centred healthcare provision. Communication is known to confer this provision as indicated earlier. Governments have the mandate to empower health practitioners by establishing viable policies helpful in promoting the aspects of communication in order to promote substantial healthcare provisions. The nature of policies enacted and embraced by a government can actually dictate the healthca re provisions indicated earlier (Frampton Charmel, 2009). Communication among the health practitioners enhances professionalism, promotes competence, and diversifies expertise in various healthcare disciplines. It is evident that different governments have varying regulations meant to enhance quality and patient-centred healthcare provisions indicated before. The benefits of communication (with regard to healthcare provisions) are evident when considered critically. It is imperative to provide the sick with a quality patient-centred care as conferred by communication. Concurrently, the named communication equally helps in providing the sick with critical and quality healthcare provisions. The incorporation of expertise from different disciplines is helpful in endorsing patients with the required quality patient-centred healthcare provisions mentioned earlier. There are various benefits gained in the communication. Firstly, it promotes the success of all medical operations while enh ancing the aspects of job satisfaction and expertise among the concerned healthcare practitioners (Debisette Vessey, 2011).  It is central to consider the stereotypes of inter-professional provisions in healthcare sectors. Having studied the benefits of collaborative communication provisions (with respects to patient-centred cares), it is recommendable to uphold the virtues of this issue between patients and healthcare practitioners. Managing to uphold the mentioned benefits is substantial in the healthcare context. Additionally, communication promotes maximum use of resources and facilities (Branine, 1998). When healthcare practitioners come together to work on a particular medical case, the aspects of efficiency, proficiency, and rapidity will obviously maximize the use of the available resources and facilities within the healthcare context. There are also issues of negative professional stereotypes as alleged before. With the adoption of effective communication, King Faisal Sp ecialist Hospital and Research center will take advantage of opportunities as they come along. Thus, the delivery of healthcare services will be timely. It aims at ensuring that there is efficiency. Operating an effective inventory management, information on market dynamics, supplier’s power and the costs of goods should be undertook, there is also need to have all procurement departments integrated in the system for proper communication among them. Consequently, this ensures that there is enhanced communication between loading and unloading of goods (Kinsella 2003). King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research center had no option other than maintaining good business relationship and effective communication provisions with its suppliers. This will assist in making sure that there is reliability in the supply of materials. Effective communication offered the platform through the system that aimed at enhancing the relation that prevails. The relationship means that suppliers w ere getting more concerned on demand from medical facilities like King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research center. They also aimed at fulfilling the demand in quality and quantity; suppliers have crucial information that they can give to the company, and assist in making strategic decisions in order to take advantage of market opportunities. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research center needs to look into its database for effective communication. Some suppliers have supplied satisfying equipment leading to better provision of medical care services. Using effective communication, the company has been able to maintain a pool of data detailing these times for future decision-making. Effective communication ensures the company has adequate supplies at any one point in time (Wilson Rockstraw, 2012). Appendix A Strategic Information Systems Grid Business Challenges: Inadequate communication provision among the concerned professionals Occupational cultures Prejudice Improper resource allocation Interpersonal differences, large number of participants, poor coordination Ignorance of multi-professional benefits, political issues, and other relevant concerns Management Issues: Recently, the organization has instituted the compliance and quality control departments. It pursues strategies that determine the nature of training considered suitable for its employees. Information Systems Solutions: This conforms to the demands of attaining proficient and successful healthcare practices. When health practitioners from different disciplines come together to solve a given medical case, it is possible to succeed prominently since each of them might bring a different idea helpful in the case Technology Issues: Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) Electronic Medical Records (EMR) Electronic Health Records (EHR) Business Benefits: Efficiency, Profitability Expansion Promptness Professionalism Organization Issues: It is central to consider the st ereotypes of inter-communicational provisions in healthcare sectors. Having studied the benefits of collaborative communication provisions (with respects to patient-centred cares), it is recommendable to uphold the virtues of this issue between patients and healthcare practitioners. Appendix B Comparison of Solutions Objectives Weight of Objective Option 1 Build Community on Yahoo Option 2 Establish own Internet Site Option 3 Pilot Community at Avoid Privacy/ Security Risk .20 Low Medium High Full Automation .25 Low High Medium Ease of Implementation .10 High Medium Medium Ease of Use .20 Low High Medium Cost .15 Low Medium Medium Time to Market .10 High Medium Low References Branine, M. (1998). The logic of job-sharing in the provision and delivery of health care. Journal of Health Organization and Management. 12(1), 63-72. Couch, J. (1998). The health care professionals guide to disease management, Maryland: Aspen Press. CSIP (2008). A summary of Lord Darzi’s Review of the NHS. Web. Debisette, A. Vessey, J. (2011). Nursing workforce issues. New York, NY: Springer. Department of Health. (1999). National service framework for mental health: modern standards and service models. Web. Drinka, T. Clark, P. (2000). Health care communication: interdisciplinary practice and teaching. Connecticut, CT: Auburn Press. Enthoven, A. Vorhaus, C. (1997). A vision of quality in health care delivery. Health Affairs Journal. 16 (3), 44-57. Forman, H. (2011). Nursing leadership for patient-centred care: authenticity, presence, intuition, expertise. New York: SPRINGER. Frampton, S. Charmel, P. (2009). Putting Patients First Best Practices in Patient-centered Care: Epub Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons. Guo, K. (2009). Effective communication in health care: Strategies to improve communication skills for managers. The Business Review, Cambridge’. 12(2), 8-17. Jones, R. (2005). Oxford textbook of primary medical care. Oxford : Oxford University Press. Kelly, P. (2012). Nursing leadership management. Ohio, OH: Cengage Learning. Liff, R. (2011). Promoting cooperation in health care: Creating endogenous institutions. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management. 6(1), 46-63. Taylor, R. Lessin, L. (1996). Restructuring the health care delivery system in the united states’, Journal of Health Care Finance. 22(4), 33-60. Thornton, S. (2011). No decision about me without me: making it happen. Web. Trofino, J. (1995). Transformational leadership in health care, Nursing Management. 26(8), 42-52. Wilson, L. Rockstraw, L. (2012). Human simulation for nursing and health professions. New York, NY: Springer.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Peregrine Falcon essays

Peregrine Falcon essays The Peregrine Falcon is one of the most interesting animals in the World. It is by far the swiftest and most unique bird of prey. It is also a symbol of Americas recovering threatened and endangered species. Its name is derived from the Latin word peregrinus, meaning traveler. The Peregrine Falcon and its subspecies are generally located in North America. The Peregrine Falcon has three subspecies that live in North America. They are the America, Artic, and Peale Peregrine Falcons. The American (Falco peregrinus anatum) resides in southern Alaska, Canada, United States and northern Mexico. The Arctic Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) dwells on the north slope of Alaska east across northern Canada to Greenland, and migrates to Latin America in the winter. The Peales (Falco peregrinus pealei) is a year-round resident on the coasts of Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska north to the Aleutian Islands. The Peregrine Falcon has the most natural distribution of any bird in the world. It can be found on every continent except Antarctica. There are other places where it cant be found, such as high mountains, large deserts, jungles and isolated islands throughout the ocean. The Peregrine Falcon can survive almost any because of its unique build. The Peregrine Falcon belongs to the genus Falco, which consists of birds of prey with long and pointed wings. During flight, it casts a silhouette upon the ground forming the shape of a sickle. The Latin word falx means sickle, thus Falco was derived from it. Their wings are long and slim and come to a point. This type of wings can beat rapidly and make the bird very agile (look at source 1 and pics). Another unique characteristic of the Peregrine Falcon is its notched beak. It uses its beak to sever the spinal column of its prey at the neck. This species is only a crow sized bird weighing nearly t...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Read These Definition Essay Examples from Our Sample Writers or Use Online Help

Read These Definition Essay Examples from Our Sample Writers or Use Online Help A definition essay is a piece of writing that explains what a term or a concept means. The term may be evaluated from the direct or exact meaning and from the point of the subjectivity of the person defining the term. The aim is not only to provide the dictionary definition but also to expound on why the word is defined in such a manner. What Is a Definition Essay? A definition essay  is a piece of writing that explains what a term or a concept means. Some terms have definite, concrete meanings, such as glass, book, or tree. Terms such as honesty, honor, or love are abstract and  depend  more on a persons point of view. The term may be evaluated from the  direct or  exact meaning and from the point of the subjectivity of the person defining the term. The aim is not only to provide the dictionary definition but also to expound on why the word is defined in such a manner. The approach to be used depends on the subject, your readers, and the essay’s purpose. Definition Essay Example on Emotional Intelligence What Is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional intelligence is a term that is commonly used in corporate entities by managers and employees alike to assess the feelings of people in the workplace that may affect productivity. Emotional intelligence denotes one’s ability to manage subjective emotions and that of other people. It entails the capacity of a person to connect sentiments and use them to resolve complications and deliberate critically. Additionally, it entails the ability of a person to control their own emotions and to cheer up or calm down other people. The term emotional intelligence was first invented in the nineteen hundred’s by two psychologists, Salovey and Mayer. However, the term gained much popularity later in 1995 used it in his book entitled, â€Å"Emotional Intelligence: Why can it Matter more than IQ?† In this book, Goleman claimed that emotional intelligence is a central part of human development. Moreover, he identified the five main spheres of emotional intelligence as; knowing one’s emotions, managing those emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing and understanding other people’s emotions and managing relationships. Today, emotional intelligence is widely used in organizations to allow those with highly developed social skills to excel just like those with good academic qualifications. Emotional Intelligence vs. IQ The intelligence quotient refers to an assessment of the ability of a person to think and reason. The intelligence quotient is measured using the IQ score which is a method of measuring a person’s IQ against others who are in the same age bracket. The term intelligence quotient stemmed from the early research by psychologists on intelligence. The research which mainly focused on the intellectual aspects such as problem-solving and memory became known as intelligence quotient. The perceptive aspects of intellect were found to be easy to measure. For a long time, even though intelligence quotient was considered to be more important than emotional intelligence, psychologists, through several studies have proved that the reverse is actually true. The academic intelligence of a person, for instance, has nothing to do with the person’s emotions. Having excellent academic grades and getting well-paying jobs does not determine how a person is likely to react to the situations and the storms of life.   People with very high IQs are found to be very poor in managing their own lives. As Goleman argues, concentrating on the academic performances without inclining an ear to emotional intelligence results in a character that is likely to affect an individuals destiny adversely. Another reason why emotional intelligence is considered more important than intelligence quotient because it enables people to fit in all domains of life. It is evident that people who are emotionally skilled are better equipped to fit in all spheres of life. People who know how to manage their own emotions and can read and manage the feelings of other people are said to be comfortable in all life spheres including intimate relationships and work relationships. However, the lack of the ability to control one’s emotions can result in inner battles that limit their capacity to work and think clearly. The Merits of Person with High  Emotional Intelligence One of the merits of persons with extraordinary emotional acumen is the capacity to embrace modifications. Emotionally intelligent people apprehend that change is unavoidable and is a fragment of life. As a result, they embrace change as part of their daily lives and plan in advance should changes arise. Secondly, emotionally intelligent people pay attention to their work and do not get easily distracted from their original course. Thirdly, emotionally smart folks are empathetic. Goleman states that compassion is a unique and significant constituent of emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent people are thus capable of relating to others, showing compassion and helping others when they are in need. Other qualities of emotionally intelligent people are self-motivation and the ability to set boundaries. One of the ways through which people can improve their emotional intelligence is through avoiding negative feelings. This can be achieved by reducing negative personalization and reducing the fear of rejection. People can provide themselves with alternative options to a situation, making them have alternatives no matter the outcome of a situation. Another way of improving emotional intelligence is staying cool even when stressed. Keeping cool while handling stress can help a person to be assertive rather than being reactive to a situation thus enabling them to be more emotionally intelligent. Additionally, emotional intelligence can be improved by the ability to bounce back from adversity. Bouncing back from difficult moments enables people to have empathy for others hence better emotional intelligence. Other ways of improving emotional intelligence are; connecting one’s feelings with the thoughts and creating a positive environment. 15 INTERESTING DEFINITION ESSAY TOPICS Definition Essay Example on Respect How Do We Define Respect? One of the most important ways of establishing and maintaining lasting relationships both at home and at work is having respect for oneself and others. The term respect refers the recognition of the values of people and things and treating them with care and concern. It means having a deep admiration for someone or something. This admiration stems from the accomplishments, abilities and the qualities of a person. Additionally, respect encapsulates the way one thinks about someone or something. For instance, an employer can be said to have respect for his employees if he admires their abilities and accomplishments in the workplace and treats them well. Respect determines the way in which a person lives as well as the interaction with other members of the society. Respect for oneself, for instance, restrains a person from engaging in risk-taking behaviors that can cause the destruction of both the body and mind. Moreover, having respect for each other at home, in the workplace, and in the society at large help in reducing conflicts, disagreements and misunderstandings thus contributing to peaceful coexistence and a harmonious society. One can also demonstrate respect for things because of the inherent values they have. The fundamentals of respect, consequently, remain constant whether a person or an item is in question. Why Is Respect so Important? Respect plays a central role in building and maintaining healthy and lasting relationships. First, respect helps in establishing open communication between the parties in relationships. In families, for instance, having respect helps the members to be trustworthy, honest and straight forward. This way they are capable of abiding by the family rules and living peacefully. Additionally, open communication emanating from respect is useful in the workplaces. Respect enables the employers and employees alike, to communicate with each other in a professional and honest manner. This way, people feel free to convey their opinions and ideas in without being interrupted. Secondly, respect is significant in building trust in relationships. The flourishing of relationships, whether family, business, intimate or working relationships depends on trust. Respect for oneself and others can help in building trust.   An employee who fulfills the responsibilities and delivers in time because of the respect for his job and employers, for example, is capable of gaining the trust of the employees. Consequently, the employee has higher chances of being promoted. Additionally, having respect in relationships results in trust between couples making them have better and healthier relationships. Moreover, respect is important in relationships since it is the key to happiness. Having respect for others enables a person to become more tolerant and embrace people’s differences. Additionally, respecting the views and beliefs of others limits conflicts and confrontations among the people. The result is the peaceful coexistence between people that gives them inner peace, contentment, and happiness. Furthermore, having respect for other people boosts their esteem since they feel appreciated. How to Become a Person of Respect? One of the ways of becoming more respectful to others is honesty. Honesty comprises vital traits like truthfulness, straightforwardness, and integrity. It is important to realize that people would like to be dealt with honestly. Therefore, showing respect for others entails being honest in words and actions. Additionally, one should be responsible for their words and make people know that they are reliable. An additional approach of displaying respect to others is by exhibiting kindness. When dealing with family, friends or colleagues, showing kindness makes them feel appreciated and loved. One of the ways of showing kindness to others is watching one’s tone when addressing others. It is important to note that no one wants to be ordered around and using the golden words such as please and thank you can aid in showing respect. Obedience is another way through which one can show respect to others. If asked by an elderly person or a person in authority to do something which is not harmful or immoral, one should obey and follow the instructions. Other ways of being more respectful are; taking care of one’s mess, exercising fairness, courtesy, avoiding putting blames on others and listening to others without interrupting. Personally, I think respect means accepting people for who they are and learning to live with them harmoniously despite our differences. It involves embracing other people’s strengths and weaknesses without prejudice. By learning to accept other people, we reduce our engagements in conflicts and other disrespectful behaviors such as name calling and hauling insults at each other. The end result is a cohesive and harmonious society. If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team or place an order and our professionals will write a great paper for you.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Crime, the Media and the Law Policy Research Paper

Crime, the Media and the Law Policy - Research Paper Example The power of the media and its responsibilities towards ensuring a harmonious state shall be looked into and the effects of such media coverage on the people shall be explored. Apart from this, the commercial aspect of the media and the advertising industry that forms a large part of the media and depends on sensationalism to a great extent for drawing its revenues shall also be a part of the focus of this paper. The only way in which the masses of a particular place would get to know about the crime rates of the area that they live in is through the media. Kenneth Dowler states – â€Å"The mass media play an important role in the construction of criminality and the criminal justice system. The public’s perception of victims, criminals, deviants, and law enforcement officials is largely determined by their portrayal in the mass media† (2003). Statistics regarding the performances of specific sectors of the law enforcement agencies are often let out to the society through the work of the media. Te channel of communication between the rulers and the ruled being the media, it has the onus of redirecting power back to the people from whom it is supposed to originate. The working of a democracy in an ideal manner has thus, a lot to do with the way in which the cycles of power are managed. The interest of the people at the helm of affairs would lie in the way in which the negative aspects of their tenure along with the positive ones are reported. This would result in a balanced analysis that would enable the smooth functioning of democracy in a nation. The media would then be able to fulfil its role as a check on the power of elected representatives in a government. Problems arise, however, when this system is subverted for the sake of profits on the part of increasingly profit-oriented media ventures. The effects of commercialization can be seen the most in the news media which provides people with the maximum amount of knowledge regarding crime s and the mechanisms that seek to control it. Such control is dependent on the taxes that people pay and hence depends on their consent regarding the modes of prevention of crime and the punishments that are meted out to people who violate the law. The opinions of people regarding the methods that seek to tackle crime are always factors that decide the person that occupies the seat of power. Consequently, the process of dealing with crime is something that is important to not just the people who cover it as a part of the media but also for the people who make laws for the prevention of it (Current Problems in the Media, 2012). The credibility of the media too has undergone erosion in the last few decades. With a growth in the corporatisation of the media, the power of its lobbies has grown too. The power of the media in shaping public opinion too is something that provides it with immense clout in deciding the social affairs of the state. This has however, instead of encouraging hon est investigative reporting led people to look for easy successes and fame through sensationalism (ibid). An unhealthy state of affairs in the media reflects badly upon the health of the nation’